Updated: 5/8/2017

Lithium

Topic
Review Topic
0
0
Questions
3
0
0
Evidence
4
0
0
Videos
1
Overview
  • Psychiatric medications can be broken down into the following categories
    • antidepressants
    • antipsychotics
    • bipolar medications
      • include lithium
    • anxiolytics
Mechanism
  • Lithium is a bipolar medication
  • Mechanism
    • unknown
    • may be related to inhibition of phosphoinositol recycling in neurons
Indications
  • Clinical use
    • mood stabilizer
      • mainly in bipolar disorder
        • prevents relapse and treats acute manic events
      • can be used in tandem with antidepressants
      • due to slow onset of lithium may first give patient with an acute manic episode a benzodiazepine or neuroleptic
    • SIADH
Toxicity and Side Effects
  • Toxicity
    • very narrow therapeutic index
      • requires blood monitoring
      • toxicity may be seen at levels higher than 1.5 mEq/L
      • increased risk in patients who are volume depleted or hyponatremic
      • caution if adding hydrochlorathiazide, NSAID, or ACE-inhibitor
      • loop diuretics do not increase toxicity
    • tremor (coarse tremor indicates likely toxicitiy)
    • sedation
    • ataxia
    • acne
    • edema
    • heart block
    • exclusively excreted by the kidneys (reabsorbed at the proximal convoluted tubule with Na+) and long term use may cause a glomerulopathy
    • hyperparathroidism 
    • hypothyroidism 
    • polyuria  
      • ADH antagonist resulting in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
      • reason for use in SIADH
    • leukocytosis
    • teratogenesis if given in pregnancy
      • cardiac malformations including Ebstein anomaly in first trimester  
 

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 1 Ratings

Thank you for rating! Please vote below and help us build the most advanced adaptive learning platform in medicine

The complexity of this topic is appropriate for?
How important is this topic for board examinations?
How important is this topic for clinical practice?
Questions (3)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK

(M1.PY.75) A 19-year-old African American male with a history of bipolar I disorder presents to the psychiatrist for a follow-up visit. During the session, the patient explains that for the past 2 months he has felt significantly fatigued and constipated. He is always complaining of feeling cold and has gained several pounds although his diet has not changed. A blood sample was sent for analysis, revealing the following: TSH - 6 mIU/L (nl = 0.4-4.0 mIU/L), free T4 - 0.4 ng/dL (nl = 0.7-1.9 ng/dL), and serum T4 - 2.1 mcg/dL (nl = 4.6-12 mcg/dL). Which of the following is responsible for these abnormalities? Review Topic

QID: 106839
1

Valproic acid

8%

(1/13)

2

Lithium

85%

(11/13)

3

Carbamazepine

0%

(0/13)

4

Lamotrigine

0%

(0/13)

5

Olanzapine

8%

(1/13)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 2

(M1.PY.109) A 27-year-old P1G1 who has had minimal prenatal care delivers a newborn female infant. Exam reveals a dusky child who appears to be in distress. Her neck veins are distended and you note an enlarged v wave. She has a holosystolic murmur. Following echocardiogram, immediate surgery is recommended.

For which of the following conditions was the mother likely receiving treatment during pregnancy? Review Topic

QID: 100625
1

Depression

3%

(3/88)

2

Hypothyroidism

3%

(3/88)

3

Diabetes

10%

(9/88)

4

Bipolar disorder

81%

(71/88)

5

Hypertension

0%

(0/88)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 4
ARTICLES (4)
VIDEOS (1)
Topic COMMENTS (14)
Private Note