Updated: 12/27/2018

Beta-Blockers

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
6
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0
Evidence
5
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0
β-Blocker Selectivity
 
Drug Effect
Clinical Applications Toxicity
Nonselective β-Antagonists (β1 = β2)


Propranolol,
nadolol,
timolol

Lowers BP and HR
Reduces renin secretion
Decreases cardiac ouptut and increases peripheral resistance 
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Angina pectoris
Migraines
Hyperthyroidism
Glaucoma (timolol)
Bradycardia
Fatigue 
Worsening asthma
Vivid dreams
 β1-Selective Antagonist (β1 > β2) 
Metoprolol,
atenolol,
betaxolol
Lowers BP and HR
Reduces renin secretion
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Angina pectoris
Same toxicity as above but safer in asthma 
Esmolol Very rapid onset of action (10 min half-life)
Rapid control of supraventricular arrhythmias, BP, and thyrotoxicosis  
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Nonselective α- and β-Antagonists (β1 = β2 ≥ α1 > α2
Labetalol,
carvedilol
  Heart failure
Fatigue
Partial β-Agonists (β1 = β2 Blockade with Some β-Agonist Activity) 
Acebutolol,
pindolol, 
carteolol 
Lowers HR less than the effect on BP
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Hypotension but less tachycardia than alpha blockers such as phentolamine
 
Mechanism of Action for Clinical Application
 
Clinical Application
Mechanism
Hypertension
  • ↓ Cardiac output 
  • ↓ Renin secretion by blocking β-receptor on JGA cells
Angina pectoris
  • ↓ O2 consumption by ↓ heart rate and contractility 
SVT (propranolol, esmolol)
  • ↓ AV conduction velocity
MI
  • ↓ Mortality
CHF
  • Slows progression
Glaucoma (timolol)
  • ↓ Secretion of aqueous humor
 

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Questions (6)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.PH.44) A 62-year-old male is rushed to the emergency department (ED) for what he believes is his second myocardial infarction (MI). His medical history is significant for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a prior MI at the age of 58. After receiving aspirin, morphine, and face mask oxygen in the field, the patient arrives to the ED tachycardic (105 bpm), diaphoretic, and normotensive (126/86). A 12 lead electrocardiogram shows ST-elevation in I, aVL, and V5-V6. The attending physician suspects a lateral wall infarction. Which of following beta-blockers should be given to this patient and why? Review Topic

QID: 100847
1

Propranolol, because it is a non-selective ß-blocker

8%

(3/40)

2

Metoprolol, because it is a selective ß1 > ß2 blocker

70%

(28/40)

3

Atenolol, because it is a selective ß2 > ß1 blocker

5%

(2/40)

4

Labetalol, because it is a selective ß1 > ß2 blocker

10%

(4/40)

5

Nadolol, because it is a selective ß1 > ß2 blocker

0%

(0/40)

M1

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