Updated: 12/31/2020

Central and Peripheral Nervous System

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Overview
  • Neuronal classification 
    • based upon the type of neurotransmitter they release and which inhibitor acts on them
    • cholinergic: acetylcholine (ACh) 
      • inhibitors
        • muscarine (M)
        • nicotinic (N)
    • adrenergic: epinephrine (Epi)
    • noradrenergic: norepinephrine (NE)
    • dopaminergic: dopamine (D1 and D2)
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)  = brain and spinal cord
  • Autonomic: controls activities NOT under direct conscious control
    • parasympathetic (ACh M)
      • cardiac muscle
      • smooth muscle
      • nerve terminals  
      • gland cells
    • sympathetic
      • cardiac muscle (NE)
      • smooth muscle (NE)
      • sweat glands (ACh M)
      • gland cells (NE)
      • renal vascular smooth muscle (D1)
      • nerve terminals (NE)
  • Somatic (ACh N): controls activities under direct conscious control (movement and respiration)
    • skeletal muscle
ACh receptors
  • Nicotinic ACh receptors
    • ligand-gated Na+/K+ channels
    • 2 subtypes
      • NN
        • found in the preganglionic efferent fibers synapsing in the autonomic ganglia 
      • NM
        • found in the somatic motor fibers synapsing on neuromuscular junction
  • Muscarinic ACh receptors
    • G-protein coupled receptors
    • 5 subtypes
      • M1
      • M2
      • M3
      • M4
      • M5

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