Updated: 11/4/2019

Diabetes Insipidus

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Snapshot
  • A 30-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician for increased frequency of urinating, thirst, and urinating at night. She was in a car accident about a month ago, where she had head trauma. Since then, she reports that she has noticed this increased frequency of urination. At that time, head imaging had been normal. Her physician decides to conduct a vasopressin challenge. The results show decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality. Based on these results, she decides to start the patient on desmopressin. (Central diabetes insipidis)
Introduction
  • Clinical definition
    • diabetes insipidus (DI)
      • characterized by excess free water loss and dilute urine
Central vs Nephrogenic Diabetes Inspidus (DI)

Central DI
Nephrogenic DI
Definition
  • Failure to produce antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 
  • Insensitivity or resistance of the kidneys to ADH
Etiology
  • Pituitary tumor, where vasopressin is released
  • Other pituitary injuries
    • autoimmune disease
    • trauma 
    • surgery
    • ischemia
  • Drugs
    • lithium
    • demeclocycline
    • amphotericin B
  • Congenital (rare)
  • Electrolyte abnormalities
    • hypercalcemia
    • hypokalemia
Pathogenesis
  • ↓ ADH, resulting in increased extracellular fluid osmolarity
  • ADH
Vasopressin (DDAVP) challenge
  • ↓ Urine volume and ↑ urine osmolality 
  • No change in urine volume or osmolality

Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
    • nocturia
    • thirst
Studies
  • Serum labs
    • ↑ serum osmolarity (central DI)
    • electrolytes
      • hypernatremia
  • Other tests
    • 24-hour urine studies
      • best initial test
      • ↓ urine osmolality
      • ↓ urine sodium
      • ↑ urine volume
    • water deprivation challenge
      • no change in urine osmolality or volume
    • vasopressin challenge
      • central DI
        • ↓ urine volume and > 50% ↑ in urine osmolality with DDVAP
      • nephrogenic DI
      • lack of response to vasopressin
Differential
  • Primary polydipsia 
    • distinguishing factor
      • hyponatremia after trial of desmopressin
      • decreased urine output with water deprivation test
Treatment
  • Lifestyle
    • hydration
    • low sodium diet
      • nephrogenic DI
  • Medical
    • desmopressin (DDAVP)
      • mechanism
        • ADH analog
      • indication
        • central DI
    • hydrochlorothiazide
      • mechanism
      • indication
    • indomethacin
      • mechanism
      • indication
    • amiloride
      • mechanism
      • indication
 Complications
  • Hypernatremia
  • Dehydration
 

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Questions (6)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.EC.13.65) A 23-year-old male presents with complaints of polydipsia and frequent, large-volume urination. Laboratory testing does not demonstrate any evidence of diabetes; however, a reduced urine osmolality of 120 mOsm/L is measured. Which of the following findings on a desmopressin test would be most consistent with a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus? Review Topic | Tested Concept

QID: 100366
1

Reduction in urine osmolality to 60 mOsm/L following vasopressin administration

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(1/30)

2

Reduction in urine osmolality to 110 mOsm/L following vasopressin administration

3%

(1/30)

3

Increase in urine osmolality to 130 mOsm/L following vasopressin administration

3%

(1/30)

4

Increase in urine osmolality to 400 mOsm/L following vasopressin administration

83%

(25/30)

5

No detectable change in urine osmolality following vasopressin administration

3%

(1/30)

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