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A 28-year-old African American woman presents to her primary care physician with two weeks of nausea, abdominal pain, and increased urination. She states she has had kidney stones in the past and is concerned because her current pain is different in character from what she had experienced then. In addition she reports increasing weakness and fatigue over the past several months as well as mild shortness of breath. Chest radiography shows bilateral hilar adenopathy. Which of the following processes is most likely responsible for her current symptoms?
Osteoclast-driven bone resorption
Increased production of parathyroid hormone
Ectopic parathyroid hormone release
Increased intestinal absorption of calcium
Increased renal calcium reabsorption
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A 60-year-old man presents to the emergency room with a chief complaint of constipation. His history is also significant for weakness, a dry cough, weight loss, recurrent kidney stones, and changes in his mood. He has a 30 pack-year history of smoking. A chest x-ray reveals a lung mass. Labs reveal a calcium of 14. What is the first step in management?
Administer intravenous fluids