Updated: 3/15/2021

Tibial nerve

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Topic
Tibial Nerve 
Overview
  • Motor
    • gastrocnemius 
    • popliteus 
    • soleus 
    • tibialis posterior 
    • flexor digitorum longus 
    • flexor hallucis longus 
    • abductor hallucis 
    • flexor digitorum brevis 
    • flexor hallucis brevis 
    • foot lumbricals 
    • quadratus plantae 
    • flexor digiti minimi 
    • adductor hallucis 
    • foot interossei
    • abductor digiti minimi 
  • Sensory 
    • articular branch to knee joint
    • sural nerve branch
      • runs distal with the small saphenous vein
      • anastomoses with a branch from the peroneal nerve
      • continues distal on lateral aspect of the Achilles tendon
      • terminates as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve of the foot
  • Reflexes
    • none
Origin
  • L4-S3 roots
    • lumbosacral plexus
      • sciatic nerve
        • tibial nerve
          • medial plantar nerve
          • lateral plantar nerve
Course of Tibial Nerve
  • Originates from the sciatic nerve
    • splits from sciatic nerve in distal thigh
    • passes through popliteal fossa
    • runs under arch of soleus
    • continues distally on undersurface of soleus
    • passes into foot posterior to the medial malleolus
Terminal Branches
  • Medial plantar nerve 
    • runs under the abductor hallucis and superficial to the flexor digitorum brevis
    • gives motor branches to:
      • abductor hallucis
      • flexor digitorum brevis
      • flexor hallucis brevis
      • 1st lumbrical
    • gives sensory branches to: 
      • plantar medial 3 1/2 digits
      • medial 3 1/2 dorsal nailbeds
  • Lateral plantar nerve  
    • runs between the flexor digitorum brevis and quadratus plantae
    • gives motor branches to:
      • quadratus plantae
      • flexor digiti minimi
      • adductor hallucis
      • interossei
      • three lateral lumbricals
      • abductor digiti minimi
    • gives sensory branches to:  
      • lateral plantar surface
      • lateral 1 1/2 toes
      • lateral 1 1/2 dorsal nailbeds
Nerve Injury & Clinical Conditions
  • Tibial Nerve Injury
    • can result from direct trauma or peripheral neuropathy (less common)
    • leads to:
      • loss of ankle and toe plantarflexion
      • weakened foot inversion
      • sensory loss to the plantar aspect of the foot

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