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A 4-year-old male is accompanied by his mother to the pediatrician. His mother reports that over the past two weeks, the child has had intermittent low grade fevers and has been more lethargic than usual. The child’s past medical history is notable for myelomeningocele complicated by lower extremity weakness as well as bowel and bladder dysfunction. He has been hospitalized multiple times at an outside facility for recurrent urinary tract infections. The child is in the 15th percentile for both height and weight. His temperature is 100.7°F (38.2°C), blood pressure is 115/70 mmHg, pulse is 115/min, and respirations are 20/min. Physical examination is notable for costovertebral angle tenderness that is worse on the right. Which of the following would most likely be found on biopsy of this patient’s kidney?
Mononuclear and eosinophilic infiltrate
Replacement of renal parenchyma with foamy histiocytes
Destruction of the proximal tubule and medullary thick ascending limb
Diffusely necrotic papillae with dystrophic calcification
Tubular colloid casts with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate
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A 22-year-old sexually active, otherwise healthy female presents to her primary care physician complaining of several days of dysuria, frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain. She denies fever, flank pain, vaginal itching, or vaginal bleeding/discharge. Which organism is most likely responsible for this patient's symptoms?
A 34-year-old female presents to her primary care physician with complaints of fevers, nausea/vomiting, and severe left flank pain that has developed over the past several hours. She denies any prior episodes similar to her current presentation. Physical examination is significant for a body temperature of 39.1 C and costovertebral angle tenderness. A urinalysis and urine microscopy are ordered. Which of the following findings on kidney histology would be expected in this patient?
Interstitial fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate
Neutrophils filling the lumens of the renal tubules
Thickening of the capillaries and glomerular basement membrane
Scarring of the glomeruli
Enlarged, hypercellular glomeruli with 'wire-looping' of capillaries
A 33-year-old female presents with recent onset of painful urination, fever, and right flank pain. Urinary sediment analysis is positive for the presence of white blood cell casts and Gram-negative bacteria. She has not recently started any new medications. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Acute Interstitial Nephritis