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Updated: Jul 23 2017

Body Fluid Compartments

  • Overview
  • Introduction
    • Body fluid compartments
      • total body water (TBW) is composed of
        • intracellular fluid (ICF)
          • ~2/3 of TBW
        • extracellular fluid (ECF) (~1/3 of TBW) which is composed of
          • interstitial fluid
            • ~ 3/4 of ECF
            • interstitial fluid is fluid in which cells are bathed
          • plasma
            • ~1/4 of ECF
            • plasma volume is measured by radiolabeled albumin
      • solute composition of fluid compartments
        • intracellular fluid
          • potassium is abundant in the ICF
            • mnemonic: HIKIN = HIgh K+ INtracellularly
        • extracellular fluid
          • sodium and chloride is abundant in the ECF
          • ECF is measured by inulin
      • "60-40-20 Rule"
        • 60% of body weight is total body water
        • 40% of body weight, or 2/3 of total body water, is intracellular fluid (ICF)
        • 20% of body weight, or 1/3 of total body water, is extracellular fluid (ECF)
    • Osmosis
      • describes the movement of water through a semipermeable membrane
        • water moves from an area of high water concentration (or low solute concentration) to an area of low water concentration (or high solue concentration)
      • units
        • osmolarity (mOsm/L)
          • solute concentration per liter of solvent (e.g., water)
        • osmolality (mOsm/kg)
          • solute concentration per kilogram of solvent
      • effective osmole
        • a solute that does not cross the cell membrane (e.g., protein)
          • this creates an osmotic force that "pulls" water into its compartment
      • Osmolarity and Volume Changes Under Certain Conditions
      • Conditions
      • Extracellular Fluid
      • Intracellular Fluid
      • Blood Osmolarity
      • Isotonic fluid loss
      • No change
      • No change
      • Hypotonic fluid loss
      • Isotonic fluid gain
      • No change
      • No change
      • Hypotonic fluid gain
      • Hypertonic fluid gain
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