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Updated: Jan 29 2022

Diaphragm Embryology

  • Overview
    • Diaphragm
      • derived from 4 different sites
        • septum transversum (located between primitive heart and liver) → central tendon
        • pleuroperitoneal folds
        • body wall→ peripheral parts of diaphragm
        • dorsal mesentery of esophagus → crura
      • diaphragm descends during development and becomes innervated on week 4 of development by the phrenic nerve C 3, 4, 5
  • Herniations
    • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
      • failure of the pleuroperitoneal membrane to develop
      • abdominal contents herniate into the pleural cavity
        • contents can compress lungs buds preventing proper development causing pulmonary hypoplasia
      • commonly presents on left posterolateral side
      • Symptoms in newborn
        • flat abdomen
        • dyspnea
        • bowel sounds in chest area
        • cyanosis
    • Esophageal hiatal hernia
      • stomach herniates through esophageal hiatus
      • due to the elevated level, esophagogastric sphincter does not work properly
        • "acid reflux" in adults
        • infants typically vomit when laid down after feeding
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