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Updated: Apr 1 2020


  • Snapshot
    • A 35-year-old G1P0 woman gives birth to a baby with the scalp finding seen in the image. A few months prior to her discovery that she was pregnant, she had symptoms of palpitations, heat intolerance, and weight loss. She was diagnosed with Graves disease and prescribed methimazole by her endocrinologist. During her pregnancy, she missed several routine prenatal appointments and inadvertently continued taking many of the same medications that she had been taking prior to her pregnancy, including methimazole.
  • Introduction
    • Overview
      • teratogens are agents that can cause abnormal fetal development and birth defects
        • effects vary depending on timing of fetal exposure to the teratogen
          • weeks 1-3 of gestation
            • "all-or-none" effects
              • the embryo either dies or survives without any complications
          • weeks 3-8 of gestation
            • embryonic period
            • most susceptible time period due to organogenesis
          • week 8 of gestation until birth
            • growth and function of organs are affected
      • Substance Abuse
      • Teratogen
      • Effects on Fetus
      • Alcohol
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Cocain
      • Low birth weight
      • Preterm birth
      • Intrauterine growth restriction
      • Placental abruption
      • Nicotine
      • Low birth weight
      • Preterm labor
      • Placental problems
      • Sudden infant death syndrome
      • ADHD
      • Medications
      • ACE inhibitors (i.e., lisinopril)
      • Renal damage
        • renal dysplasia
      • Alkylating agents (i.e., cyclophosphamide)
      • Absence of digits
      • Cleft palate
      • Renal agenesis
      • Aminoglycosides (i.e., gentamicin)
      • Ototoxicity
      • Antiepileptic drugs (i.e., phenytoin)
      • Neural tube defects
      • Cardiac defects
      • Cleft lip and palate
      • Diethylstilbestrol
      • Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
      • Congenital cervical, ovarian, and uterine abnormalities
      • Folate antagonists (i.e., methotrexate)
      • Neural tube defects
        • meningomyelocele   
      • Isotretinoin
      • Multiple severe birth defects (i.e., cleft palate, microphthalmia, and congenital heart defects)
      • Lithium
      • Ebstein anomaly
      • Methimazole
      • Aplasia cutis congenita
      • Tetracyclines (i.e., doxycycline)
      • Discolored teeth
      • Inhibited bone growth
      • Thalidomide
      • Limb defects
      • Warfarin
      • Bone deformities
      • Fetal hemorrhage
      • Abortion
      • Opthalmologic abnormalities
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