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Updated: Jan 27 2018

Umbilical Cord and Remnants

  • Normal Anatomy
    • Umbilical arteries
      • right and left umbilical arteries branching from internal iliac arteries return deoxygenated blood from the fetus
        • single umbilical artery is associated with increased likelihood of congenital abnormalities
    • Umbilical vein
      • single umbilical vein returns oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus
    • Allantois
      • forms the umbilical arteries and vein
  • Abnormalities
    • Urachal duct
      • a duct extending from yolk sac to apex of the bladder
      • yolk sac forms allantois which becomes urachus
        • during development, the lumen of the uraches closes
        • adult remnant is median umbilical ligament
      • if urachus fails to close
        • patent urachus
          • urine leaks from umbilicus
        • vesicourachal diverticulum
          • bladder protrudes from umbilicus
    • Vitelline duct (omphalomesenteric duct)
      • connects yolk sac to midgut, closes during week 7
      • if vitelline duct lumen fails to close then
        • vitelline fistula
          • meconium discharge from umbilicus
        • Meckel's diverticulum (see "Meckel's Diverticulitis")
          • failure of lumen to close on side opening to ileum
          • can have ectopic gastric mucosa leading to melena and RLQ pain
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