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Study X examined the relationship between coffee consumption and lung cancer. The authors of Study X retrospectively reviewed patients' reported coffee consumption and found that drinking greater than 6 cups of coffee per day was associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer. However, Study X was criticized by the authors of Study Y. Study Y showed that increased coffee consumption was associated with smoking. What type of bias affected Study X, and what study design is geared to reduce the chance of that bias?
Observer bias; double blind analysis
Lead time bias; placebo
Selection bias; randomization
Measurement bias; blinding
Confounding; randomization or crossover study
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A pharmaceutical company conducts a randomized clinical trial in an attempt to show that their new anticoagulant drug, Aclotsaban, prevents more thrombotic events following total knee arthroplasty than the current standard of care. However, a significant number of patients are lost to follow-up or fail to complete treatment according to the study arm to which they were assigned. Despite this, the results for the patients who completed the course of Aclotsaban are encouraging. Which of the following techniques is most appropriate to use in order to attempt to prove the superiority of Aclotsaban?
A new antihypertensive medication is studied in 3,000 Caucasian men with coronary heart disease who are over age 65. The results show benefits in terms of improved morbidity and mortality as well as a decreased rate of acute coronary events with minimal side effects. After hearing about this new medication and supporting study at a recent continuing education course, a family physician elects to prescribe this medication to a 39-year-old Hispanic female who presents with primary hypertension. After a one month trial and appropriate adjustments in the dosing, the patient's blood pressure is not well controlled by this medication. Which of the following statistical concepts could explain this patient's poor response to the medication?
A study is funded by the tobacco industry to examine the association between smoking and lung cancer. They design a study with a prospective cohort of 1,000 smokers between the ages of 20-30. The length of the study is five years. After the study period ends, they conclude that there is no relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Which of the following study features is the most likely reason for the failure of the study to note an association between tobacco use and cancer?
Two studies are reviewed for submission to an oncology journal. In Sudy A, a novel MRI technology is evaluated as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. The authors find that the mean survival time is 4 years in the control group and 10 years in the MRI-screened group. In Study B, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a novel antidepressant are used to treat patients with comorbid pancreatic cancer and major depression. Patients receiving the new drug are told that they are expected to have quick resolution of their depression, while those who do not receive the drug are not told anything about their prognosis. Which of the following describes the likely type of bias in Study A and Study B?
Lead time bias; Pygmalion effect
Lead time bias; Golem effect
Latency bias; Pygmalion effect
Latency Bias; Golem effect
Confounding; Golem effect
A new formula for an anti-wrinkle cream is being tested for efficacy in a group of 362 healthy 40- to 60-year-old female volunteers. The marketing team randomizes the volunteers. Half receive the new formula and the other half of the volunteers receive the original formula. The mean age in the test group is 48 (95% CI 42-56), and the average age of the control group is 49 (95% CI 42-55). The volunteers are unaware of which formula they receive. The research and development team then compares before and after photographs of the volunteers following 6 weeks of at home application twice daily. For simplicity, the marketing team labels the photographs with "new formula" or "original formula." 98% of volunteers in the test group complete the study, and 97% of volunteers in the control group complete the study. The researchers conclude that there is improved wrinkle reduction with 6 weeks of use of the new formula. Which of the following potential biases most likely impacted this conclusion?
A new study is investigating the effects of an experimental drug, Exerzisin, on the duration and intensity of exercise. In the treatment group participants are given daily Exerzisin at the main treatment facility and instructed to exercise as much as they would like on the facility's exercise equipment. Due to an insufficient number of exercise units at the main treatment center, the control subjects are given free access to an outside, private gym. The duration and intensity of exercise in both groups is measured with a pedometer. The perspicacious undergraduate, hired to input all the data, points out that the treatment group may be more motivated to exercise harder and longer because their exercising can be observed by the investigators. To which form of bias is he alluding?
Lead time bias
A randomized controlled trial is conducted investigating the effects of different diagnostic imaging modalities on breast cancer mortality. 8,000 women are randomized to receive either conventional mammography or conventional mammography with breast MRI. The primary outcome is survival from the time of breast cancer diagnosis. The conventional mammography group has a median survival after diagnosis of 17.0 years. The MRI plus conventional mammography group has a median survival of 19.5 years. If this difference is statistically significant, which form of bias may be affecting the results?
Because this study is a randomized controlled trial, it is free of bias
An office team is being observed by an outside agency at the request of management to make sure they are completing all their tasks appropriately. Several of the employees are nervous that they are being watched and take care to perform their jobs with extra care, more so than they would have done during a normal workday. What best describes this behavior?
You are reviewing the protocol for a retrospective case-control study investigating risk factors for mesothelioma among retired factory workers. 100 cases of mesothelioma and 100 age and sex matched controls are to be recruited and interviewed about their exposure to industrial grade fiberglass by blinded interviewers. The investigators' primary hypothesis is that cases of mesothelioma will be more likely to have been exposed to industrial grade fiberglass. The design of this study is most concerning for which type of bias?
This study design is free of potential bias