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A recent study attempted to analyze whether increased "patient satisfaction" driven healthcare resulted in increased hospitalization. In this hospital, several of the wards adopted new aspects of "patient satisfaction" driven healthcare, whereas the remainder of the hospital continued to use existing protocols. Baseline population characteristics and demographics were collected at the start of the study. At the end of the following year, hospital use was assessed and compared between the two groups. Which of the following best describes this type of study?
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A researcher interested in the relationship between vaccination and autism sends a survey to parents of children who are active patients at a large primary care practice. The survey asks several questions, including whether their children received their childhood vaccines on-time, and whether their children currently have a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Which of the following correctly identifies the study design used by the researcher?
Randomized controlled trial
You would like to conduct a study investigating potential risk factors that predispose patients to develop cirrhosis. Using a registry of admitted patients over the last 10 years at your local hospital, you isolate all patients who have been diagnosed with cirrhosis. Subsequently, you contact this group of patients, asking them to complete a survey assessing their prior exposure to alcohol use, intravenous drug abuse, blood transfusions, personal history of cancer, and other medical comorbidities. An identical survey is given to an equal number of patients in the registry who do not carry a prior diagnosis of cirrhosis. Which of the following best describes the type of study you are attempting to conduct?
A new study shows a significant association between patients with a BMI >40 and a diagnosis of diabetes (odds ratio: 7.37; 95% CI 6.39-8.50) compared to non-diabetic patients. Which of the following hypothetical studies most likely yielded these results.
A study consisting of 1000 non-diabetic subjects; 500 patients with a BMI > 40 and 500 patients with normal BMI, followed for diagnosis of diabetes over their life time
A study consisting of 500 patients with diabetes and 500 patients without diabetes comparing BMI of subjects in both groups
A study consisting of 1000 genetically similar mice; 500 randomized to diet to maintain normal weight and 500 randomized to high caloric intake with the outcome of diabetes rates in both groups after 1 year
A study of 1000 patients with BMI > 40 with diabetes; 500 randomized to inpatient diet and exercise with goal BMI <25, and 500 randomized to no treatment with an outcome of glycemic control without medication after 1 year
A study of 1000 patients comparing rates of diabetes diagnoses and BMIs of diabetic and non-diabetic patients