Updated: 2/13/2018

Sleep Apnea

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
4
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Evidence
7
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Introduction
  • sleep apneaDefined as breathing arrest for at least 10 seconds repeatedly during sleep (definitions range from 5-40/hr) 
  • Conditions associated with
    • obstructive sleep apnea
      • obesity 
      • craniofacial abnormalities
      • nasal congestion
    • central sleep apnea
      • heart failure
      • stroke
      • male
      • increasing age
Classification
  • Types 
    • central sleep apnea
      • no respiratory effort deriving from ↓ CNS drive
    • obstructive sleep apnea
      • physical airway obstruction
      • may be caused by
        • ↓ pharyngeal muscle tone
        • obese neck pressing on the upper airway 
        • ↑ size of tonsils
        • nasal septal deviation
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • chronic daytime sleepiness 
      • similar to narcolepsy
    • loud snoring
    • unrestful sleep
  • Physical exam
    • large neck circumference
    • crowded oropharynx
    • micrognathia
Studies
  • Epworth sleepiness scale
    • help quantitate patient perception of sleep and fatigue
  • Polysomnography
    • needed to make diagnosis and to formulate treatment strategy
  • Labs
    • polycythemia 
      • due to chronic hypoxia stimulating EPO release
      • usually mild if no daytime hypoxemia
Treatment
  • Conservative
    • weight loss
    • CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure)
  • Operative
    • Surgical correction
Complications
  • Arrhythmias
    • Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular ectopy
    • bradycardia and asystole
    • may result in sudden death
  • Pulmonary hypertension
    • may result in mild pulmonary hypertension, but not definitively cor pulmonale if no daytime hypoxemia is present
  • Severe OSA may be associated with CAD
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

(M1.PL.73) A 63-year-old man presents to his primary care physician complaining of excessive daytime sleepiness. He explains that this problem has worsened slowly over the past few years but is now interfering with his ability to play with his grandchildren. He worked previously as an overnight train conductor, but he has been retired for the past 3 years. He sleeps approximately 8-9 hours per night and believes his sleep quality is good; however, his wife notes that he often snores loudly during sleep. He has never experienced muscle weakness or hallucinations. He has also been experiencing headaches in the morning and endorses a depressed mood. His physical exam is most notable for his large body habitus, with a BMI of 34. What is the best description of the underlying mechanism for this patient's excessive daytime sleepiness? Review Topic

QID: 106572
1

Insufficient sleep duration

7%

(5/73)

2

Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder

5%

(4/73)

3

Poor oropharyngeal tone

70%

(51/73)

4

Deficiency of the neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B

16%

(12/73)

5

Psychiatric disorder

0%

(0/73)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 3

(M1.PL.79) A 67-year-old man with a past medical history of sleep apnea presents to the emergency room in severe respiratory distress. On exam, his blood pressure is 135/75 mmHg, heart rate is 110/min, respiratory rate is 34/min, and SpO2 is 73% on room air. He is intubated, admitted to the intensive care unit, and eventually requires a tracheostomy tube. After surgery, he continues to have episodes of apnea while sleeping. What is the most likely underlying cause of his apnea? Review Topic

QID: 106901
1

Incorrect ventilator settings

0%

(0/15)

2

Central sleep apnea

80%

(12/15)

3

Obstructive sleep apnea

13%

(2/15)

4

Angioedema

0%

(0/15)

5

Heart failure

7%

(1/15)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 2
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(M1.PL.100) A 55-year-old woman complains of daytime somnolence. Her BMI is 32 kg/m3 and her husband says she snores frequently during the night. Polysomnography test reveals the patient experiences more than 5 obstructive events an hour. The patient is at increased risk of developing which of the following? Review Topic

QID: 100903
1

Pulmonary hypertension

100%

(11/11)

2

Emphysema

0%

(0/11)

3

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

0%

(0/11)

4

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

0%

(0/11)

5

Pleural effusion

0%

(0/11)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 1
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