Updated: 7/10/2018

Airways

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Overview
  • Conducting Airways
    • "conducting zone" includes:
      • nose
      • nasopharynx
      • larynx
      • trachea
        • contains a cartilaginous layer composed of C-shaped hyaline cartilages
          • prevent collapse of tracheal lumen, especially during expiration
      • bronchi
        • contain a cartilaginous layer composed of discontinuous cartilage plates
        • distal most extent of mucous producing goblet cells
      • bronchioles
      • terminal bronchioles
    • bring air into and out of lungs
    • warm, humidify, and filter air
    • anatomic dead space
      • do not participate in gas exchange
    • walls contain smooth muscle
      • sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation regulates airway diameter
        • mechanism for altering airway resistance and airflow
  • Respiratory Airways
    • "respiratory zone" includes:
      • respiratory bronchioles 
        • lined by simple cuboidal cells
      • alveolar ducts
      • alveolar sacs 
        • alveolar wall lined by type I and type II pneumocytes 
          • type II pneumocytes proliferate after alveolar damage and secrete surfactant 
    • participate in gas exchange
      • structures are lined with alveoli
      • exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and pulmonary capillary blood occurs rapidly and efficiently across alveoli
        • alveolar walls are thin and have large surface area for diffusion
        • blood-gas barrier = alveolar type I cell - interstitium - capillary endothelial cell
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.PL.2) There are histologic changes in the airway from proximal to distal. What is the last level of the bronchial tree in which the cells shown in Figure A (black arrows) can be found? Review Topic

QID: 100805
FIGURES:
1

Bronchi

10%

(1/10)

2

Terminal bronchioles

40%

(4/10)

3

Respiratory bronchioles

30%

(3/10)

4

Alevolar ducts

0%

(0/10)

5

Alveolar sacs

20%

(2/10)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 1

(M1.PL.13) A male infant is born at 27 weeks following premature rupture of membranes and a precipitous labor to a G4P3 female. Given the speed of delivery steroids are not given. Shortly after delivery he develops respiratory distress and the decision is made to administer surfactant replacement therapy. While the components of the surfactant used in surfactant therapy may vary based on institution, what is the main component of pulmonary surfactant produced by type II pneumocytes? Review Topic

QID: 101907
1

Protein S

0%

(0/13)

2

Zinc finger protein

0%

(0/13)

3

Cholesterol

0%

(0/13)

4

Surfactant-associated proteins

15%

(2/13)

5

Phospholipids

85%

(11/13)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 5

(M1.PL.63) A 48-year-old patient is recovering from acute lung injury following a diffuse pulmonary viral infection. The cell type responsible for the regeneration of the patient's alveolar epithelium is also functions in: Review Topic

QID: 100866
1

Protease release

5%

(2/38)

2

Phagocytosis

5%

(2/38)

3

Mucus secretion

5%

(2/38)

4

Surfactant secretion

82%

(31/38)

5

Recruitment of neutrophils

3%

(1/38)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 4
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