Updated: 5/8/2020

Airways

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Questions
4
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Evidence
7
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Topic
https://upload.medbullets.com/topic/117001/images/airway_1.jpg
Overview
  • Conducting Airways
    • "conducting zone" includes:
      • nose
      • nasopharynx
      • larynx
      • trachea
        • contains a cartilaginous layer composed of C-shaped hyaline cartilages
          • prevent collapse of tracheal lumen, especially during expiration
      • bronchi
        • contain a cartilaginous layer composed of discontinuous cartilage plates
        • distal most extent of mucous producing goblet cells
      • bronchioles
      • terminal bronchioles
    • bring air into and out of lungs
    • warm, humidify, and filter air
    • anatomic dead space
      • do not participate in gas exchange
    • walls contain smooth muscle
      • sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation regulates airway diameter
        • mechanism for altering airway resistance and airflow
  • Respiratory Airways
    • "respiratory zone" includes:
      • respiratory bronchioles 
        • lined by simple cuboidal cells
      • alveolar ducts
      • alveolar sacs 
        • alveolar wall lined by type I and type II pneumocytes 
          • type II pneumocytes proliferate after alveolar damage and secrete surfactant 
    • participate in gas exchange
      • structures are lined with alveoli
      • exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and pulmonary capillary blood occurs rapidly and efficiently across alveoli
        • alveolar walls are thin and have large surface area for diffusion
        • blood-gas barrier = alveolar type I cell - interstitium - capillary endothelial cell

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Questions (4)
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(M1.PL.14.13) A male infant is born at 27 weeks following premature rupture of membranes and a precipitous labor to a G4P3 female. Given the speed of delivery steroids are not given. Shortly after delivery he develops respiratory distress and the decision is made to administer surfactant replacement therapy. While the components of the surfactant used in surfactant therapy may vary based on institution, what is the main component of pulmonary surfactant produced by type II pneumocytes?

QID: 101907
1

Protein S

2%

(2/86)

2

Zinc finger protein

0%

(0/86)

3

Cholesterol

1%

(1/86)

4

Surfactant-associated proteins

5%

(4/86)

5

Phospholipids

92%

(79/86)

M 1 E

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(M1.PL.13.2) There are histologic changes in the airway from proximal to distal. What is the last level of the bronchial tree in which the cells shown in Figure A (black arrows) can be found?

QID: 100805
FIGURES:
1

Bronchi

42%

(28/67)

2

Terminal bronchioles

31%

(21/67)

3

Respiratory bronchioles

21%

(14/67)

4

Alevolar ducts

0%

(0/67)

5

Alveolar sacs

6%

(4/67)

M 2 C

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(M1.PL.13.63) A 48-year-old patient is recovering from acute lung injury following a diffuse pulmonary viral infection. The cell type responsible for the regeneration of the patient's alveolar epithelium is also functions in:

QID: 100866
1

Protease release

2%

(2/94)

2

Phagocytosis

2%

(2/94)

3

Mucus secretion

2%

(2/94)

4

Surfactant secretion

90%

(85/94)

5

Recruitment of neutrophils

2%

(2/94)

M 1 E

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Evidence (7)
EXPERT COMMENTS (16)
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