Updated: 4/2/2018

Antigen Processing and Presentation

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Introduction
  • Antigens must be presented to the adaptive immune system so that
    • specialized antigen presenting cells (APCs) can activate the immune system
    • killer T-cells can monitor the intracellular contents of all cells
    • helper T-cells can be alerted to both intracellular and extracellular antigens
  • Two types of antigens are processed by cells for presentation on the cell surface
    • endogenous antigens are proteins produced by the cell
    • exogenous antigens are proteins that are taken up by the cell
  • Both types are linked to major histocompatability complexes (MHC) during processing so that
    • they can be stably exported to the cell surface
    • they can be recognized specifically by T-cells
  • Antigens are presented to two distinct cell populations including
    • CD4+ helper T-cells that
      • recognize antigens loaded onto MHC class II
    • CD8+ killer T-cells that
      • recognize antigens loaded onto MHC class I
Antigen Processing
  • Antigens must undergo a number of transformations before being presented including
    • degradation of proteins into component peptides
    • translocation of the peptides into the appropriate compartment
    • loading of the peptides onto MHC proteins
  • The processing of antigens must therefore preserve information about
    • the location from where the antigen originated
    • the type of response that is required
Antigen Processing Pathways
Feature MHC Class I MHC Class II
Function
  • Allow for sampling of intracellular antigens
  • Signal that a cell is infected or abnormal
  • Allow for sampling of extracellular antigens
  • Signal that pathogens are within the host
Target cell
  • CD8+ killer T-cells
  • Rule of 8: (MHC) 1 x (CD) 8 = 8
  • CD4+ helper T-cells
  • Rule of 8: (MHC) 2 x (CD) 4 = 8
Antigens
  • Endogenous antigens
  • Exogenous antigens
Degradation
  • By proteosomes in the cytosol
  • By proteases in the phagosome
Translocation
  • Into ER by TAP proteins 
  • Into endosomes after phagocytosis
Loading
  • Directly bind to MHC I  
  • Bind to MHC II after release of invariant chain
Defect
  • Absent CD8+ activity
  • Absent CD4+ activity
 
Antigen Presentation
  • After processing, antigenic peptides are loaded on surface MHC proteins where
    • T-cell receptors can bind specifically to the peptide
    • CD4 and CD8 can bind specifically to the corresponding MHC
    • Integrins can bind APCs
  • Together, this set of interactions allows for
    • specific detection of antigens
    • activation of T-cells

References

 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.IM.24) Antigen presentation of extracellular pathogens by antigen presenting cells requires endocytosis of the antigen, followed by the degradation in the acidic environment of the formed phagolysosome. Should the phagolysosome become unable to lower its pH, what is the most likely consequence? Review Topic

QID: 100445
1

Deficient NK cell activation

7%

(1/15)

2

Deficient presentation of pathogens to CD4 T-cells

73%

(11/15)

3

Deficient presentation of pathogens to CD8 T-cells

7%

(1/15)

4

Deficient cell extravasation

13%

(2/15)

5

Deficient expression of B7

0%

(0/15)

M1

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