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Normal, Quiet Breathing
  • Muscles of inspiration
    • diaphragm
    • external intercostals
  • Muscles of expiration
    • passive process
Exercise Breathing
  • Exercise → ↑ respiratory rate, ↑ tidal volume
  • Muscles of inspiration
    • diaphragm
      • contracts downward increasing intrathoracic cavity volume
      • elevates lower ribs
    • external intercostal muscles
      • elevate lower ribs
    • accessory muscles
      • scalenus muscles
        • elevate upper ribs
      • scternocleidomastoid muscle
        • elevate sternum
  • Muscles of expiration
    • internal and external oblique muscles, rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis
      • compress abdominal cavity and push diaphragm upward
    • internal intercostal muscles
      • pull ribs downward and inward
 

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