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Disease Prevention: Individual Level
  • 1° (Primary prevention) 
    • prevent disease occurrence
      • e.g., vaccination
  • 2° (Secondary prevention)
    • early detection of disease to either prevent or decrease morbidity from disease before onset of symptoms
      • e.g., colonoscopy
  • 3° (Tertiary prevention)
    • reduce morbidity from disease after symptom onset
      • e.g., medication
  • 4° (Quaternary prevention) 
    • reducing harm by identifying patients who are at risk for unnecessary treatment, overmedicalisation, harm from new interventions, and suggest new interventions which are ethically acceptable
      • e.g., not spending money on things that do not work or recommendation of preventive measures of proven efficacy
Disease Prevention: Community Level
  • Also known as primordial prevention
  • Prevention at the community level involves promoting the health of entire populations and avoiding health risks altogether 
  • Social and economic policy-making
    • cigarette, soda, or other taxes
    • smoke-free cities, buildings, and restaurants
    • investments in public transportation and schools
  • Health education
    • public health campaigns surrounding smoking, alcohol, diet, and exercise
  • Environmental interventions
    • promoting green space
    • reducing pollution
  • Addressing health care disparities

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(M1.ST.15.1) A 50-year-old male presents to his primary care physician for a routine check-up. He reports that he is doing well overall without any bothersome symptoms. His past medical history is significant only for hypertension, which has been well controlled with losartan. Vital signs are as follows: T 37.0 C, HR 80, BP 128/76, RR 14, SpO2 99%. Physical examination does not reveal any concerning abnormalities. The physician recommends a fecal occult blood test at this visit to screen for the presence of any blood in the patient's stool that might be suggestive of an underlying colorectal cancer. Which of the following best describes this method of disease prevention?

QID: 102719
1

Primordial prevention

6%

(12/191)

2

Primary prevention

27%

(52/191)

3

Secondary prevention

59%

(112/191)

4

Tertiary prevention

2%

(4/191)

5

Quaternary prevention

0%

(0/191)

M 1 C

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