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You are conducting a study comparing the efficacy of two different statin medications. Two groups are placed on different statin medications, statin A and statin B. Baseline LDL levels are drawn for each group and are subsequently measured every 3 months for 1 year. Average baseline LDL levels for each group were identical. The group receiving statin A exhibited an 11 mg/dL greater reduction in LDL in comparison to the statin B group. Your statistical analysis reports a p-value of 0.052. Which of the following best describes the meaning of this p-value?
There is a 95% chance that the difference in reduction of LDL observed reflects a real difference between the two groups
There is a 5% chance of observing a difference in reduction of LDL of 11 mg/dL or greater even if the two medications have identical effects
Though A is more effective than B, there is a 5% chance the difference in reduction of LDL between the two groups is due to chance
This is a statistically significant result
If 100 permutations of this experiment were conducted, 5 of them would show similar results to those described above
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A grant reviewer at the National Institutes of Health is determining which of two studies investigating the effects of gastric bypass surgery on fasting blood sugar to fund. Study A is spearheaded by a world renowned surgeon, is a multi-center study planning to enroll 50 patients at each of 5 different sites, and is single-blinded. Study B plans to enroll 300 patients from a single site and will be double-blinded by virtue of a sham surgery for the control group. The studies both plan to use a t-test, and they both report identical expected treatment effect sizes and variance. If the reviewer were interested only in which trial has the higher power, which proposal should he fund?
Study A, because it has a superior surgeon
Study A, because it is a multi-center trial
Study B, because it has a larger sample size
Study B, because it is double blinded
Both studies have the same power
You submit a paper to a prestigious journal about the effects of coffee consumption on mesothelioma risk. The first reviewer lauds your clinical and scientific acumen, but expresses concern that your study does not have adequate statistical power. Statistical power refers to which of the following?
The probability of detecting an association when no association exists.
The probability of detecting an association when an association does exist.
The probability of not detecting an association when an association does exist.
The probability of not detecting an association when no association exists.
The first derivative of work.