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Updated: Mar 27 2023

Blood Cell Differentiation


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  • Overview
  • Introduction
      • Blood Cell Types
      • Type
      • Description
      • Erythrocyte
      • Red cell responsible for carrying O2 to tissues, and CO2 to lungs
      • Erythropoietin increases RBC production
      • Glucose uptake not affected by insulinLife span of 120 days
      • Most energy produced is via glycolysis
      • Hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt to produce NAPDH and ribose 5-phosphate
      • Platelets
      • Derived from megakaryocytes
      • Plays a role inhemostasis
      • Endothelial damage leads to platelet aggregation via other platelets and fibrinogen
      • Contains granules that are secreted upon platelet activation
        • dense granules – ADP, Ca2+
        • α-granules – vWF, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
      • Mast cells
      • Involved in allergic reaction via a type I hypersensitivity mechanism
      • Granules containing substances such ashistamine and heparin
      • Receptors (FcεR1) on mast cell can bind to IgE
        • IgE binding →cross-linking → degranulation
      • Monocytes
      • When in tissues, it differentiates into macrophages
      • Macrophages
      • Has ability to ingest pathogens, cellular debris, and dead or dying cells
      • Interferon-γ is an important activator of macrophages
      • Antigen presenting abilities via MHC II
      • Involved in granuloma formation (i.e., tuberculosis)
      • Dendritic cell
      • Antigen presenting cell via MHC II
      • Acting as a link between the innate and adaptive immune system
      • White blood cell differential
      • Neutrophils (54 – 62%)
        • if ↑, think bacterial infection
        • ↑ myeloid proliferation due to conditions such as bacterial infections would ↑band cells
          • Band cell = immature neutrophils
        • C5a, IL-8, LTB4 are some molecules that promote chemotaxis in neutrophils to infection or inflammation sites 
        • hypersegmented in vitamin B12 or folate deficiency
      • Lymphocytes (25 – 33%)
        • B-cell
          • matures in marrow
          • differentiates into antibody producing cells (plasma cells) when encountering antigen
          • antigen presenting ability via MHC II
        • T-cell
          • matures in thymus 
          • cytotoxic T-cell: CD8+ recognize MHC I
          • helpter T-cell: CD4+ recognize MHC II
          • T-cells are activated with CD28 costimulation
      • Monocytes (3 – 7%)
      • Eosinophils (1 – 3%)↑ in conditions such as helminthic infection, neoplasia, Addison disease, and so forth
      • Basophils (0 – 0.75%)
        • involved in allergic reactions
        • granules contain heparin and histamine
        • can be ↑ in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)can be helpful in differentiating from leukemoid reaction
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