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A 14-year-old Caucasian female commits suicide by drug overdose. Her family decides to donate her organs, and her heart is removed for donation. After removing the heart, the cardiothoracic surgeon notices flat yellow spots on the inside of her aorta. Which of the following cell types predominate in these yellow spots?
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A 65-year-old man presents to the Emergency Department complaining of substernal chest pain. An acute coronary event is suspected and a coronary catheterization procedure reveals an atherosclerotic plaque in the patient's left anterior descending artery. In the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque, which of the following pairings is correct?
Fibroblasts -- foam cells
Smooth muscle cells (SMC) -- extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition
Endothelial cells -- downregulation of VCAM-1
Smooth muscle cells -- migration from intima to media
LDL chemical reduction -- endothelial dysfunction
A 50-year-old Caucasian male notices substernal chest pain while walking his dog uphill in Central Park on a sunny Saturday morning. The pain disappears after 5 minutes of rest, and he continues to enjoy his weekend. As he smokes a cigarette later in the day, he wonders: which of the following pathologies were most likely responsible for his chest pain that morning?
A fixed atherosclerotic plaque obstructing 80% of one of his coronary arteries
A fixed atherosclerotic plaque obstructing 50% of one of his coronary arteries
An ulcerated fibrous plaque in one of his coronary arteries
A pulmonary embolism
A ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in one of his coronary arteries
A 65-year-old Caucasian man presents to the emergency room with chest pain. Coronary angiography reveals significant stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Which of the following represents a plausible clinical predictor of myocardial necrosis in this patient?
Cholesterol crystal presence
Rate of plaque formation
Presence of cytokines
Amount of foam cells
A 60-year-old male painter with severe chest pain is found to have atherosclerosis of his coronary arteries. What type of cells were most likely injured in the initial stage of his disease?
Smooth muscle cells