Updated: 7/5/2019

Arteriosclerosis

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Snapshot
  • A 56-year-old man presents to the emergency department (ED) after being found unresponsive in his home. Advanced cardiovascular life support was instituted, failed, and the patient was pronounced dead. The family arrived at the ED and reported that the patient had a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Forensic studies in the coronary vessels demonstrated that a myocardial infarction with subsequent fatal arrhythmia was determined to be the cause of death. His coronary vessels demonstrated atherosclerosis.
Introduction
  • Definition
    • arterial hardening that results from arterial wall thickening and a loss of vessel elasticity
 
General Patterns of Arteriosclerosis
Types
Findings
Arteriolosclerosis
  • Sclerosis of the small arteries and the arterioles
  • There are two variants
    • hyaline 
      • pink hyaline thickening of the arteries with narrowing of the vessel lumen 
    • hyperplastic 
      • onion skin thickening with narrowing of the vessel lumen 
  • May result in distal ischemic injury
Monkeberg medial sclerosis
  • Calcifications of muscular arteries
    • the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries are involved
  • These calcifications do not encroach in the vessel lumen
  • These are clinically benign
Atherosclerosis 
  • Secondary to a build of cholesterol plaques affecting elastic arteries and large and medium-sized muscular arteries
 

References

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