4.8 of 6 Ratings
A 7-year-old boy is being evaluated in pediatric cardiology clinic. He appears grossly normal, but suddenly becomes tachypneic and cyanotic when his mom takes a toy away from him. These symptoms resolve somewhat when he drops into a squatting position. Transthoracic echocardiography reveals pulmonic stenosis, a ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, and an overriding aorta. Which of the following best predicts the degree of cyanosis and other hypoxemic symptoms in this patient?
Degree of pulmonic stenosis
Size of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Degree of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH)
Degree to which aorta overrides right ventricle
Presence of S3
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A 4-year-old Caucasian male suffers from cyanosis and dyspnea relieved by squatting. Which of the following abnormalities is most likely present?
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Atrial septal defect
Ventricular septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Bicuspid aortic valve
A 4-month-old is noted to have a grade 3/6, harsh, systolic ejection murmur heard at the left upper sternal border. The mother reports that the child's lips occasionally turn blue during feeding. A cardiologist recommends surgery. Later, the physician remarks that the infant's congenital abnormality was related to a failure of neural crest cell migration. Prior to surgery, which of the following was a likely finding?
Transposition of the great vessels