Antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins can be classified into three groups. Binding but non-neutralizing responses are directed to epitopes that are expressed on isolated envelope glycoproteins but not on the native envelope trimer found on the surface of virions and responsible for mediating the entry of virus into target cells. Strain-specific responses and broadly neutralizing responses, in contrast, target epitopes that are expressed on the native trimer, as revealed by recently resolved structures. The past few years have seen the isolation of many broadly neutralizing antibodies of remarkable potency that have shown prophylactic and therapeutic activities in animal models. These antibodies are helping to guide rational vaccine design and therapeutic strategies for HIV-1.