The yeasts Candida and Cryptococcus spp. are important human opportunistic pathogens. Candida spp. rely on skin or mucosal breach to cause bloodstream infection, whereas Cryptococcus spp. exploit depressed cell-mediated immunity characteristic of advanced HIV infection. The treatment for both organisms relies on the administration of rapidly fungicidal agents. In candidaemia, source control is important, with removal of prosthetic material and drainage of collections, as well as hunting for and tailoring therapy to disseminated sites of infection, particularly the eyes and heart. For cryptococcal meningitis, restoration of immune function through antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key, together with careful management of the complications of raised intracranial pressure and relapsed infection, both pre- and post-ART.

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