Renovascular hypertension (hypertension induced by renal artery stenosis) is a form of secondary hypertension caused by overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system by the ischemic kidney. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is estimated to be between 2% (unselected hypertensives) and 40% (older patients with other atherosclerotic comorbidities). Most cases of RAS are caused by atherosclerosis; other causes, including fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis, thromboembolism and aneurysms, are less frequent. The most frequent clinical presentation of RAS is hypertension. Acute kidney injury, rapid loss of kidney function and episodes of flash pulmonary edema are other symptoms of RAS, especially in bilateral disease. In current practice, RAS therapy includes antiplatelet (aspirin) and lipid-lowering (statin) therapy as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as a first choice of antihypertensive agents. Angiotensin blockade, however, is contraindicated in bilateral RAS and in RAS of the solitary kidney. This review summarizes the current status and perspectives on the epidemiology and management of renovascular hypertension.