Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when tissue is reperfused following a period of ischemia, and results from acute inflammation involving various mechanisms. IR injury can occur following a range of circumstances, ranging from a seemingly minor condition to major trauma. The intense inflammatory response has local as well as systemic effects because of the physiological, biochemical and immunological changes that occur during the ischemic and reperfusion periods. The sequellae of the cellular injury of IR may lead to the loss of organ or limb function, or even death. There are many factors which influence the outcome of these injuries, and it is important for clinicians to understand IR injury in order to minimize patient morbidity and mortality. In this paper, we review the pathophysiology, the effects of IR injury in skeletal muscle, and the associated clinical conditions; compartment syndrome, crush syndrome, and vascular injuries.