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A 54-year-old female presents to the emergency department complaining of shortness of breath. She does not speak English and her medical history is unknown. Her temperature is 100.1°F (37.8°C), blood pressure is 130/85 mmHg, pulse is 105/min, and respirations are 24/min. Physical examination reveals bilateral rales and dullness to percussion at the lung bases that is worse on the left. Hepatosplenomegaly is noted. A chest radiograph is shown in Figure A. A thoracentesis and hematologic analysis are performed, with the following results:Pleural lactate dehydrogenase: 54 U/LSerum lactate dehydrogenase: 82 U/LProteins, pleural fluid: 3.8 g/dLProteins, serum (total): 7.0 g/dLWhich of the following conditions is most strongly associated with these findings?
Protein losing enteropathy
Congestive heart failure
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A 78-year-old woman with a past medical history of heavy alcohol and tobacco use, esophageal cancer and chronic pancreatitis presents to the emergency room with shortness of breath. Her blood pressure is 165/94, heart rate is 118 beats per minute, respiratory rate is 31 breaths per minute, and SpO2 is 78% on room air. A chest X-ray is shown below (Figure A). She then undergoes a thoracentesis for evaluation of the left-sided pleural effusion. Which of the following results is consistent with a pleural effusion secondary to an esophageal perforation?
Fluid LDH:serum LDH ratio of 0.5:1
Fluid LDH of 50 IU/L (normal <300)
Fluid protein:serum protein ratio of 0.6:1
Fluid protein of 10 g/L (normal <25)
A gram stain is needed in order to evaluate this question