Updated: 6/7/2019

Preeclampsia / Eclampsia / HELLP Syndrome

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Introduction
  • Preeclampsia
    • hypertension, proteinuria, and edema
  • Eclampsia
    • preeclampsia + seizures
  • HELLP syndrome
    • form of preeclampsia with
      • Hemolysis, Elevated LFTs, Low Platelets
  • Risk factors
    • preexisting hypertension
    • maternal age of < 20 years and > 35 years
    • diabetes
    • chronic renal disease
    • autoimmune disorders
  • Typically occurs from 20 weeks gestation to 6 weeks postpartum
    • if symptoms occur before 20 weeks think molar pregnancy
  • Pathophysiology
    • placental ischemia secondary to impaired vasodilation of spiral arteries
    • results in ↑ vascular tone
      • ↑ vasoconstrictors
      • ↓ vasodilators
    • ↓ VEGF
Presentation
  • Symptoms 
    • headache
    • blurred vision
    • abdominal pain
    • weight gain (water retention)
  • Physical exam
    • edema of face and extremities
    • altered mentation
    • hyperreflexia
Evaluation
  • Serology
    • thrombocytopenia
    • hyperuricemia
Treatment
  • Delivery
    • as soon as fetus is viable
  • Bed rest
  • Salt restriction
  • Monitoring and treatment of hypertension
  • IV magnesium sulfate and diazepam 
    • prevention/treatment of seizures in eclampsia
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  • Complications
    • maternal cerebral hemorrhage and ARDS
 

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Questions (5)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.RP.4753) A 19-year-old primigravid woman at 33 weeks gestation arrives at her obstetrician's office. She complains she is feeling very tired and is sick of being pregnant. She notes that the swelling in her feet has been much worse recently. She has been having headaches and feels that her vision has been blurry today. Her blood pressure is 170/110 mmHg. Further testing is done showing serum aspartate aminotransferase of 110 U/L, serum alanine aminotransferase of 90 U/L, and 2+ protein on urine dipstick. Her peripheral blood smear is shown in Figure A. What is the most likely diagnosis for this patient? Review Topic

QID: 108692
FIGURES:
1

Eclampsia.

9%

(8/86)

2

HELLP Syndrome.

80%

(69/86)

3

Gestational Hypertension

5%

(4/86)

4

Hepatorenal syndrome.

2%

(2/86)

5

Normal pregnancy.

3%

(3/86)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 2

(M1.RP.2) A 36-year-old primigravida woman visits her gynecologist during the 28th week of her pregnancy. Physical examination reveals pitting edema around her ankles and elevated systolic blood pressure. 24-hour urine collection yields 4 grams of protein. If left untreated, the patient is most at increased risk for which of the following: Review Topic

QID: 100502
1

Urethral infection

4%

(6/168)

2

Thrombocytosis

24%

(40/168)

3

Hemolysis

53%

(89/168)

4

Gestational diabetes

8%

(13/168)

5

Placenta accreta

8%

(13/168)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 3
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