Updated: 12/8/2020

Hypospadias / Epispadias

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Introduction
  • Embryological malformations of the urethra (urethral groove)
    • may involve the urethral folds or genital tubercle 
  • Two main types
    • epispadias
      • urethra opens on dorsal surface of penis
        • urine goes ↑
      • defect in the genital tubercle
    • hypospadias
      • urethra opens on ventral surface of penis
        • urine goes ↓
      • defect in closure of urethral folds 
        • secondary to abnormal androgen production
      • associated with a ventral curvature of the penis (chordee)
      • risk factors
        • monozygotic twins
        • potential association with in-vitro fertilization (IVF)

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