Updated: 8/4/2018

Bipolar Disorder

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  • Patient is a 22-year-old female with no past medical history of psychiatric conditions who has been brought to the ER by her roommate. Her roommate explains the patient has slept in over a week and has redecorated their apartment twice over that time. She also has been talking much more than usual and has spent a great deal of money on online shopping. When asked, the patient describes her mood as "the best ever."  She denies a history of depressive symptoms and denies substance use. (Bipolar I disorder)
Bipolar I Disorder
  • Definition
    • meets criteria for manic episode 
  • Diagnosis of mania 
    • discrete period of persistent or pervasive elated, irritable, or euphoric mood and increased energy or increased goal-directed activity
    • lasting at least one week 
    • markedly impairing functioning, requiring hospitalization, and/or associated with psychotic symptoms
    • associated with three or more of the following symptoms:
      • inflated self-esteem (grandiosity)
      • decreased need for sleep
      • pressured speech, talkativeness
      • flight of ideas
      • distractibility
      • increase in goal-oriented activity
      • psychomotor agitation
      • increased involvement in activities that lead to negative consequences (hedonism)
  • Treatment
    • mood stabilizers
      • lithium
      • valproic acid
      • carbamazepine
    • atypical antipsychotics
    • note that use of antidepressants may precipitate mania
Bipolar II Disorder
  • Definition
    • meets criteria for hypomanic episode and has a history of at least one major depressive episode 
  • Diagnosis of hypomania
    • discrete period of persistent or pervasive elated, irritable, or euphoric mood and increased energy or increased goal-directed activity
    • lasting at least four days
    • does not markedly impair functioning, does not require hospitalization, and is not associated with psychotic symptoms
    • associated with three or more of the following symptoms:
      • inflated self-esteem (grandiosity)
      • decreased need for sleep
      • pressured speech, talkativeness
      • flight of ideas
      • distractibility
      • increase in goal-oriented activity
      • psychomotor agitation
      • increased involvement in activities that lead to negative consequences (hedonism)
Cyclothymic Disorder
  • Definition
    • prolonged period of milder elevations and depressions in mood
  • Diagnosis
    • numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms that do not meet criteria for hypomania and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a major depressive episode 
    • lasting at least two years
    • associated with markedly impaired functioning or significant distress at some point
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.PY.4766) A 21-year-old female is brought to the emergency department by her roommate. Her roommate says that the patient has been acting “strangely” for the past 10 days. She has noticed that the patient has been moving and talking on the phone at all hours of the night. She doesn’t think that the patient sleeps more than one to two hours a night. She also spends hours pacing up and down the apartment, talking about “trying to save the world.” She also notices that the patient has been speaking very fast. When asking the patient if anything seems different, the patient denies anything wrong, only adding that, “she’s made great progress on her plans." The patient said she has felt like this on one occasion 2 years ago, and she recalled being hospitalized for about 2 weeks. She denies any history of depression, although she said about a year ago she had no energy and had a hard time motivating herself to go to class and see her friends for months. She denies hearing any voices or any visual hallucinations. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient? Review Topic

QID: 109052
1

Schizoaffective disorder

11%

(11/99)

2

Major depressive disorder

2%

(2/99)

3

Bipolar I disorder

53%

(52/99)

4

Bipolar II disorder

19%

(19/99)

5

Dysthymic disorder

11%

(11/99)

M1

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