Updated: 7/23/2017

Aminopenicillins

Topic
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Introduction
  • Classification
    • antibiotic
      • penicillin-family (β-lactam)
        • penicillin
          • aminopenicillins
  • Drugs
    • ampicillin (IV or oral)
    • amoxicillin (oral)
      • amOxicillin has greater Oral bioavailability
Mechanism
  • Action
    • see Penicillin 
    • improved Gram-negative coverage is due to
      • better penetration through bacteria
      • stronger binding to PBP
  • Resistance
    • penicillinase sensitive
      • many Haemophilus influenzae strains are resistant via penicillinase
      • many enterics are resistant via penicillinase
Uses
  • Gram-negative coverage
    • enterics including
      • E. coli
      • Salmonella
      • Shigella
      • Proteus
    • H. influenzae
  • Enterococci (group D strep)
  • Listeria
  • Combine with other drugs to improve efficacy
    • used with gentamicin in emperic therapy
      • very broad Gram-negative coverage
    • used with clavulanic acid (penicillinase inhibitor)
Adverse effects
  • Allergy
  • Ampicillin rash
  • Pseudomembranous colitis
 

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