Updated: 4/18/2017

Blood Groups

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Overview
  • Different classes of blood antigens and antibodies result in different blood groups 
  • RBC surface antigens   
    • A
    • B
    • Rh (D antigen)
      • plasma antibodies
        • Anti-AB antibodies
          • IgM (do not cross placenta)
        • Anti-Rh antibodies
          • IgG (cross placenta)
          • can result in Rh Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Rh HDN)
Blood groups
 
Blood group RBC surface antigen Plasma antibody Comments
A A B  
B B A  
AB A and B None "Universal recipient"
O Neither A nor B Both and and B "Universal donor"
  • Rh
    • + indicates presence of Rh antigen
    • - indicates absence of Rh antigen
Pathology
  • Transfusion reactions
    • when incompatible blood is given severe immunologic reactions occur
    • presents with
      • hemolysis
      • renal failure
      • shock
      • death
 

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