Updated: 2/13/2018

Blood Cell Types

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https://upload.medbullets.com/topic/111002/images/monocyte1.jpg
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Basophil
  • Structure
    • bilobate nucleus covered by densely staining basophilic granules
  • Function
    • mediates allergic reaction
  • Derived from
    • granulocyte precursors
  • Pathologies
    • basophilia
      • seen with CML
  • Other important features
    • basophilic granules contain
      • heparin (anticoagulant)
      • histamine (vasodilator)
      • vasoactive amines
    • can synthesize leukotrienes
Platelet (thrombocyte) 
  • Structure
    • smallest formed element in the blood
    • anucleate
  • Function
    • primary hemostasis and blood clotting
    • prevents leakage of damaged vessels
  • When activated by endothelial injury
    • aggregates with other platelets
    • interacts with fibrinogen to form hemostatic plug
  • Derived from
    • small fragments of membrane/cytoplasm from megakaryocytes
  • Pathologies
    • thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction results in petechiae, increased bleeding time
  • Other important features
    • contains
      • dense granules (ADP, calcium)
      • α-granules (vWF, fibrinogen)
    • approximately 1/3 of platelet pool is stored in spleen
      • asplenia results in thrombocytosis
    • Lifespan = 8-10 days
      • important because aspirin permanently inactivates platelets and it takes this long to fully replenish functional platelets
Erythrocyte 
  • Structure
    • anucleate
    • biconcave
      • gives large surface area to volume ratio
  • Function
    • gas exchange (O2 and CO2)
      • due to large surface area
    • CO2 transport
      • membrane contains the chloride-bicarbonate antiporter
      • important in the physiologic chloride shift
        • allows the RBC to transport CO2 from the periphery to the lungs for elimination
  • Derived from
    • reticulocyte
      • immature erythrocyte
  • Pathologies
    • anisocytosis = varying sizes
    • poikilocytosis = varying shapes
  • Other important features
    • glucose functions as only source of energy
    • RBCs lack mitochondria so cannot use
      • citric acid cycle
      • β-oxidation of fatty acids
      • ketone body synthesis
    • survival time = 120 days
Mast cell
  • Structure
    • cells in tissue with surface bound IgE
  • Function
    • mediates allergic reaction via degranulation when IgE on surface is crosslinked
      • secretory granules contain
        • histamine
        • heparin
        • eosinophil chemotactic factors
      • also contains tryptase
  • Derived from
    • mast cells resemble basophils structurally and functionally and are derived from the same precursor
  • Pathologies
    • type I hypersensitivity reactions
  • Other important features
    • cromolyn sodium prevents mast cell degranulation
Eosinophil
  • Structure 
    • bilobate nucleus with large eosinophilic granules that do not cover the nucleus
  • Function
    • defends against invasive helminthic infections
      • uses major basic protein
    • phagocytoses antigen-antibody complexes
    • contains reaction following mast cell degranulation
      • produces anti-inflammatory histaminase and arylsulfatase
  • Derived from
    • granulocyte precursors
  • Pathologies
    • eosinophilia
      • neoplasms (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma)
      • allergic processes
      • asthma
      • collagen vascular diseases
      • invasive helminths
Neutrophil
  • Structure
    • multilobed nucleus (3-5 lobes) with large spherical, azurophilic granules
  • Function
    • acute inflammatory response cell
    • phagocytic
  • Derived from
    • granulocyte precursor
  • Pathologies
    • hypersegmented nuclei in B12 and/or folate deficiencies (> 5 lobes)
  • Other important features
    • granules contain
      • hydrolytic enzymes
      • lysozyme
      • myeloperoxidase
      • lactoferrin
Monocyte
  • Structure
    • cells in peripheral blood larger than RBCs with kidney-shaped nucleus
    • "frosted-glass" cytoplasm
  • Function
    • phagocytosis
    • antigen presentation
    • differentiate into macrophages when it reaches tissue
  • Derived from
    • monocytic precursor
  • Pathologies
    • monocytic leukemia
Macrophage
  • Function
    • phagocytosis
    • antigen presentation
    • tissue healing
  • Derived from
    • circulating monocytes
  • Pathologies
    • chronic inflammation inflammatory may have dysregulated macrophages
    • M. tuberculosis can live inside macrophages
  • Other important features
    • long life in tissues
    • activated by γ-interferon
Dendritic cells
  • Function
    • professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
    • main inducers of primary antibody response
  • Other important features
    • called Langerhans cells in skin
B lymphocyte
  • Structure
    • circular nucleus with small amount of surrounding pale cytoplasm
  • Function
    • antibody production
      • B cells differentiate into plasma cells
    • antigen presentation
  • Derived from
    • lymphocytic precursor in bone marrow
    • matures in bone marrow also
  • Pathologies
    • B-cell lymphoma
T lymphocyte
  • Structure
    • circular nucleus with small amount of surrounding pale cytoplasm
  • Function
    • mediates cellular immune responses
    • T cells differentiate into
      • cytotoxic T cells (MHC I, CD8)
      • helper T cells (MHC II, CD4)
        • also helps with antibody production
      • suppressor T cells
  • Derived from
    • lymphocytic precursor in bone marrow
    • matures in the thymus
  • Pathologies
    • helper T cells destroyed in HIV infection
    • T-cell lymphoma
Plasma cell
  • Structure
    • abundant RER
    • off center nucleus with clock-face chromatin
  • Function
    • produce large amounts of antibody specific to a particular antigen
  • Derived from
    • B cells
  • Pathologies
    • multiple myeloma
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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