Updated: 5/19/2018

Wilson Disease

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Snapshot
  • A 33-year-old female is referred to a neurologist by her primary care physician for unsteady gate, forgetfullness, and recent episodes of Terret-like spells where she will fling one arm out and above her head seemingly unprovoked. One physical exam, the neurologist notices that her irises appear multicolored with concentric rings around the perpiphery. He is concerned for a metabolic disease and orders several laboratory and radiologic studies. In the interim he has advised her to avoid eating chocolate and shellfish
Introduction
  • Free copper accumulation in many tissues (liver, brain, cornea, joints)
    • also known as hepatolenticular degeneration
    • mutation in ATP7B results in
      • inadequate copper excretion by liver into bile 
      • failure of copper to enter circulation bound to ceruloplasmin
        • ceruloplasmin is the transport protein for copper (like transferrin for Fe)
        • copper bound to ceruloplasmin normally represents the largest fraction of copper in the body
    • free copper generates free radicals that damage tissues
    • see Metabolism of copper topic
    • AR inheritance
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • Parkinson-like symptoms
      • secondary to copper desposits in putamen
    • hemiballismus
      • secondary to copper desposits in subthalamic nucleus
    • dementia
      • secondary to copper desposits in cerebral cortex
  • Physical exam
    • cirrhosis
    • corneal deposits on slit lamp examination 
      • Kayser-Fleischer rings  
        • RARELY seen in other conditions that may result in increased copper such as primary billiary cirrhosis
Evaluation
  • Labs
    • ↓ total serum copper
      • due to ↓ ceruloplasmin
    • ↑ serum non-ceruloplasmin bound copper
    • ↑ urine/serum free copper
    • hemolytic anemia
  • Liver Biopsy
    • If performed will show increased hepatic copper
Treatment
  • Medical
    • ammonium tetrathiomolybdate
      • facilitates urinary excretion of copper
    • penicillamine  
      • copper chelating agent
    • trientine
      • copper chelating agent
    • zinc
      • competes with copper for absorbtion in the gut via the same transporter
  • Surgical
    • Consider liver transplantation as clinical condition deteriorates 
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  • At risk for liver disease
    • hepatitis
    • cirrhosis
    • carcinoma (hepatocellular)
  • Also at risk for Fanconi's disease of the proximal tubules
 

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Questions (5)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.GI.138) A 31-year-old male with cirrhosis, dementia, and Parkinson-like symptoms is diagnosed with a hereditary metabolic disease resulting from the accumulation of a certain metal in various tissues. Impairment of which of the following elimination pathways is most likely responsible? Review Topic

QID: 101195
1

Secretion into bile

74%

(28/38)

2

Loop of Henle secretion into lumen of kidney

11%

(4/38)

3

Glomerular filtration

13%

(5/38)

4

Bleeding

0%

(0/38)

5

Duodenal secretion

3%

(1/38)

M1

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(M1.GI.114) A 14-year-old Caucasian male patient found to have low serum copper, high urine copper, and low serum ceruloplasmin is placed on penicillamine for management of his genetic disorder. Which of the following is LEAST consistent with this patient's clinical picture? Review Topic

QID: 101171
1

Kinky, easily breakable hair

78%

(14/18)

2

Cirrhosis

0%

(0/18)

3

Hemiballismus

11%

(2/18)

4

Corneal deposits

0%

(0/18)

5

Parkinson-like symptoms

11%

(2/18)

M1

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(M1.GI.168) A 15-year-old Caucasian female presents with Parkinson-like symptoms. Serum analysis shows increased levels of free copper and elevated liver enzymes. What test would prove most helpful in diagnosing the patient's underlying disease? Review Topic

QID: 101225
1

Serum detection of anti-myelin antibodies

0%

(0/18)

2

Slit lamp examination

89%

(16/18)

3

Vitamin B12 test

0%

(0/18)

4

CT scan

6%

(1/18)

5

Reflex test

0%

(0/18)

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