Updated: 9/12/2017

Prolactinoma

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
4
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Evidence
5
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Introduction
  • Benign mass of the pituitary
  • Pathophysiology
    • symptoms result from hypersecretion of prolactin and its inhibitory effects
    • Prolactin cells (aka lactotrophs or mammotrophs) are located in anterior pituitary 
Presentation
  • Symptoms 
    • women
      • amenorrhea
        • secondary to GnRH inhibition by prolactin
      • galactorrhea
      • infertility
        • normally functions to prevent pregnancy when a woman is breast feeding
    • men
      • low libido
      • headache
  • Compression of optic chiasm
    • visual field loss in bitemporal hemianopsia   
Evaluation
  • Serology 
    • ↑ prolactin
    • ↓ FSH, LH
Treatment
  • Pharmacologic
    • bromocriptine or cabergoline
      • dopamine agonists 
      • dopamine normally functions to supress prolactin release
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.EC.75) A 34-year-old woman presents to her OB/GYN with complaints of missing her last 3 periods as well as intermittent spontaneous milky-white nipple discharge bilaterally for the past 3 months. Vital signs are stable and within normal limits. Neurologic examination is without abnormality, including normal visual fields. Serology and MRI of the brain are ordered, with results pending. Which of the following sets of laboratory results would be expected in this patient? Review Topic

QID: 106775
1

Decreased prolactin, decreased FSH, decreased LH

5%

(3/56)

2

Decreased prolactin, increased FSH, increased LH

2%

(1/56)

3

Increased prolactin, decreased FSH, increased LH

7%

(4/56)

4

Increased prolactin, decreased FSH, decreased LH

75%

(42/56)

5

Increased prolactin, increased FSH, increased LH

9%

(5/56)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 4

(M1.EC.11) A 45-year-old male presents to the hospital complaining of frequent headaches and a decreased libido. During the physical exam, the patient also states that he has recently been experiencing vision problems. The patient is suffering from what type of adenoma? Review Topic

QID: 100312
1

Somatotroph

3%

(6/176)

2

Lactotroph

76%

(134/176)

3

Corticotroph

3%

(5/176)

4

Thyrotroph

2%

(3/176)

5

Gonadotroph

15%

(26/176)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 2

(M1.EC.7) A 29-year-old female visits her gynecologist because of an inability to conceive with her husband. Past medical history reveals that she has been amenorrheic for several months, and she complains of frequent white nipple discharge. Urine tests for beta-HCG are negative. A receptor agonist for which of the following neurotransmitters would be most likely to treat her condition: Review Topic

QID: 100507
1

Somatostatin

10%

(1/10)

2

Dopamine

90%

(9/10)

3

Vasopressin

0%

(0/10)

4

Insulin

0%

(0/10)

5

Serotonin

0%

(0/10)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 2
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