Updated: 6/13/2020

Metabolic Syndrome

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Introduction
  • Syndrome characterized by insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia and obesity
  • Associated conditions
    • polycystic ovarian syndrome
Presentation
  • Physical exam
    • acanthosis nigricans
      • sign of hyperinsulinemia
    • hypertension (>130/85 mmHg)
    • obesity
      • as evaluated by waist circumference
Evaluation
  • Serology
    • hypertriglyceridemia (>150 mg/dL)
    • hyperglycemia (>110 mg/dL fasting)
    • decreased HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in men, <50 mg/dL in women)
  • BMI = weight in kg / (height in meters)
Treatment
  • Medical with lifestyle changes
    • weight loss will 
      • increase insulin sensitivity
      • decrease blood pressure
      • increase ghrelin level
      • decrease leptin level
    • diabetic medications (metformin)
    • antihypertensive agents (ACE-inhibitors or thiazides)
    • cholesterol-loweing agents (statins)
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  •  ↑ risk of Alzheimers, coronary artery disease

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