Updated: 2/24/2018

Hypercalcemia

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
3
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Evidence
2
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Introduction
  • An increase in serum calcium level
  • Mechanisms and pathophysiology
    • dietary causes
      • calcium ingestion (milk-alkali syndrome)
      • hypervitaminosis D
      • hypervitaminosis A
    • pharmacologic causes
      • thiazides
        • causes increased tubular reabsorption of calcium
        • used to treat hypercalciuria
    • malignancy-associated causes
      • Paget's disease
        • typically does not result in hypercalcemia
        • can be come hypercalcemic if patient is immobilized
      • squamous cell cancer of the lung
        • ectopic production of PTH (PTH related peptide - PTHrP)
      • multiple myeloma
        • production of IL-1 activates osteoclast-driven bone resporption
    • sarcoidosis
      • granulomatous macrophages produce 1α-hydroxylase which produces high amounts of 1,25 vitamin D
    • hyperparathyroid 
    • genetic causes
      • familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
        • defect in calcium sensor of parathyroid gland 
          • there is a loss of negative feedback on PTH by hypercalcemia
          • PTH levels are normal to high despite high serum calcium levels
        • urine excretion of calcium is low
          • key feature distinguishing primary hyperparathyroidism from FHH
    • other causes
      • hyperthyroid
      • Addison's disease
      • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • CNS
      • confusion
      • stupor
      • weakness
    • gastrointestinal
      • constipation
      • anorexia
      • nausea
      • vomiting
    • kidney
      • polyuria
      • kidney stones
      • polydipsia
  • Physical exam
    • weakness
Treatment
  • Conservative
    • hydration
      • saline diuresis
  • Pharmacologic
    • loop diuretics
    • bisphosphonates
    • mithramycin
    • calcitonin
    • galium nitrate
  • Other
    • dialysis
 

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Questions (3)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.EC.75) A 28-year-old African American woman presents to her primary care physician with two weeks of nausea, abdominal pain, and increased urination. She states she has had kidney stones in the past and is concerned because her current pain is different in character from what she had experienced then. In addition she reports increasing weakness and fatigue over the past several months as well as mild shortness of breath. Chest radiography shows bilateral hilar adenopathy. Which of the following processes is most likely responsible for her current symptoms?
Review Topic

QID: 106742
1

Osteoclast-driven bone resorption

0%

(0/7)

2

Increased production of parathyroid hormone

0%

(0/7)

3

Ectopic parathyroid hormone release

71%

(5/7)

4

Increased intestinal absorption of calcium

29%

(2/7)

5

Increased renal calcium reabsorption

0%

(0/7)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 4

(M1.EC.91) A 60-year-old man presents to the emergency room with a chief complaint of constipation. His history is also significant for weakness, a dry cough, weight loss, recurrent kidney stones, and changes in his mood. He has a 30 pack-year history of smoking. A chest x-ray reveals a lung mass. Labs reveal a calcium of 14. What is the first step in management? Review Topic

QID: 104416
1

Begin alendronate

12%

(1/8)

2

Administer calcitonin

25%

(2/8)

3

Begin furosemide

0%

(0/8)

4

Administer intravenous fluids

50%

(4/8)

5

Begin hydrochlorothiazide

12%

(1/8)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 4
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