Updated: 1/28/2018

Skin Anatomy and Wound Healing

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Snapshot
  • A 25-year-old African American woman presents to her dermatologist for a bothersome scar. She reports that a few months ago, she injured her arm after falling off a bike. Since then, her cut has healed and a raise flesh-colored scar has grown over the wound. It is often itchy or even painful. On physical exam, she has a 7 cm raised scar with irregular borders that extends beyond the original wound. (Keloid)
Overview

 
  • Skin is the largest organ of the body
  • Functions
    • photoprotection
    • barrier formation
    • homeostasis
    • thermoregulation
    • immunologic protection
  • Skin is made of the epidermis and dermis
 Anatomy
  • Epidermis
    • layers from top to bottom
      • stratum Corneum
        • serves as a physiologic barrier from
          • chemical and microbiologic invasion
          • fluid and solute loss
      • stratum Lucidum
      • stratum Granulosum
      • stratum Spinosum
      • stratum Basale
        • separates the epidermis and dermis
      • Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis”
    • major cells
      • keratinocytes
        • mature from the stratum basale to the stratum corneum over the course of 4 weeks
      • melanocytes
        • produces melanin, which protects the skin from ultraviolet radiation
      • Langerhan cells
        • immune cells that present antigens
      • Merkel cells
        • contain neuroendocrine peptides
  • Dermis
    • layers from top to bottom
      • papillary dermis
      • reticular dermis
    • functions as structural support and provides nutrition via the vasculature
    • contains subdermal epithelial structures 
      • sebaceous glands
      • apocrine glands
      • hair follicles
      • nerves
Normal Wound Healing
  • Wound disrupts structure and function of epidermis
  • Activates keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, platelets, and macrophages
  • Hemostasis and inflammatory phase (0-3 days)
    • clot forms with platelet aggregation, trigger of clotting cascade, and small vessel constriction
    • mast cells release histamine and other vasodilators to increase permeability in vasculature
    • neutrophils and other inflammatory cells migrate into tissue
      • edema or swelling is seen clinically
    • macrophages clear debris
  • Proliferative phase (3 days to weeks)
    • fibroblasts
      • deposits glycoprotein and mucopolysaccharides
      • produce myofibroblasts
        • myofibroblasts help to contract the wound to pull the edges together
      • synthesize collagen (type III)
        • the resulting collagen matrix stimulates angiogenesis
    • the resulting collagen deposition and angiogenesis form granulation tissue
    • abnormal wound healing in this phase 
      • deficiency in vitamin C or copper can result in delayed wound healing
      • keloids and hypertrophic scars may result from persistent myofibroblasts or excessive matrix synthesis
  • Remodeling (weeks to months)
    • type III collagen is replaced by type I collagen, resulting in increased tensile strength of the tissue
    • vessels mature
    • remodeling is mediated by fibroblasts
    • abnormal wound healing in this phase
      • deficiency in zinc can result in delayed wound healing
Wound Closure Intentions
  • Primary intention
    • wound edges are re-approximated
    • faster healing and less scarring
  • Secondary intention
    • wounds are left open and allowed to granulate and fill in over time
  • Tertiary intention (delayed closure)
    • wounds are left open and observed
    • wounds are then approximated and closed later

 

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Questions (1)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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