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A 73-year-old man presents to the emergency department with acute substernal chest pain that began a few hours ago. The pain is described as a “pressure” that radiates to his left arm. His past medical history is significant for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. He is on chlorthalidone for his hypertension and simvastatin for hyperlipidemia. He has a 30 pack-year history of smoking and drinks 1-2 beers on weekends. His EKG shows ST depressions in the anterior precordial leads and he is given the proper medications and sent for emergency revascularization. Seven days later, he develops dyspnea that worsens in the supine position. Bibasilar crackles are heard on pulmonary auscultation. Cardiac exam reveals a new 3/6 holosystolic murmur best heard at the left sternal border. What is the most likely etiology of this patient’s new symptoms?
Ventricular wall aneurysm
Papillary muscle rupture
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A 27-year-old male with a history of injection drug use has been feeling short of breath and fatigued for the past several weeks. He is having trouble climbing the stairs to his apartment and occasionally feels like his heart is racing out of control. His past medical history is most notable for a previous bout of infective endocarditis after which he was lost to follow-up. On exam, you note that his carotid pulse has rapid rise and fall. Which of the following would you also expect to find?
Fixed, split S2
Widened pulse pressure
Systolic murmur that increases with valsalva
A 76-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, and CAD presents to the emergency department with shortness of breath and altered mental status. On physical exam, his BP is 85/40 mmHg and a V/VI crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur is heard that is immediately preceded by a click. Concerned about a cardiac pathology, the emergency medicine physician immediately obtains an EKG. Reading the EKG, she states that the EKG reading in combination with the cause of his murmur was most likely causing his current presentation. Which figure most likely represents the EKG of this patient?
A 68-year-old male visits his primary care physician after an episode of syncope during a tennis match. He reports exertional dyspnea with mild substernal chest pain. On physical exam a systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur is heard best at the right 2nd intercostal space. This murmur was not heard at the patient's last appointment six months ago. Which of the following would most support a diagnosis of aortic stenosis?
Presence of S3
Murmur radiates to carotid arteries bilaterally
Murmur radiates to axilla
Asymmetric ventricular hypertrophy
Double pulsation of the carotid pulse
A 37-year-old male presents to your clinic with shortness of breath and lower extremity edema. He was born in Southeast Asia and emigrated to America ten years prior. Examination demonstrates 2+ pitting edema to the level of his knees, ascites, and bibasilar crackles, as well as an opening snap followed by a mid-to-late diastolic murmur. The patient undergoes a right heart catheterization that demonstrates a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of 24 mmHg. The patient is most likely to have which of the following?
Increased pulmonary vascular compliance
Decreased pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP)
Increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP)
Normal or decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP)
Decreased transmitral gradient
A 50-year-old female presents with a holosystolic murmur heard best over the apex, radiating to the axilla. She has no signs of pulmonary hypertension or edema. What best explains her lack of symptoms?
The right ventricle is compensating with decreased compliance
The left atrium is compensating with increased compliance
The aorta is compensating with increased compliance
As long as preload in the left ventricle is maintained there would be no symptoms
There is only a ballooning of the valve which would not result in any hemodynamic changes in the heart
A 58-year-old woman with a history of rheumatic fever has been experiencing exertional fatigue and dyspnea. She has begun using several pillows at night to sleep and occasionally wakes up at night gasping for air. On exam, she appears dyspneic and thin. Cardiac exam reveals a loud S1, opening snap, and apical diastolic rumble. Which of the following is the strongest predictor of the severity of her cardiac problem?
Greater intensity of the diastolic rumble
Short time between A2 and the opening snap
Presence of a soft P2
Shorter duration of the diastolic rumble
Presence of rales
A 60-year-old woman is found to have the following pressure vs. volume profile in her left ventricle during an analysis of her cardiac cycle. See Figure A for a comparison of her profile (in red) versus a normal profile (outlined in black). Which of the following is most likely to be appreciated on auscultation?
Crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur
Holosystolic, harsh-sounding murmur
Late systolic crescendo murmur
Continuous machine-like murmur
Holosystolic, high-pitched "blowing murmur"