Updated: 3/31/2018

Myocardial Action Potential

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Snapshot
  • A 60-year-old man presents to his cardiologist for a follow-up of newly diagnosed diastolic heart failure. He has a history of asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. He reports that his pulmonologist does not want him to take β-blockers. However, his cardiologist wants to start him on a medication to slow the heart rate. He reassures the patient that this drug acts not on β-receptors but on a Ca2+ channel. (Verapamil)
Introduction
  • Ions responsible for the action potential of atria, ventricles, and Purkinje fibers are the same
    • upstroke
      • inward Na+ current
    • plateau
      • slow inward Ca2+ current via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels
      • a sustained period of depolarization
        • allows for ventricular filling
Ventricular Action Potential
  • Resting membrane potential
    • -85 mV resting membrane potential is maintained by inward rectifier K+ channels
      • inward rectifier K+ channels open at rest and close with depolarization
  • Phase 0, upstroke
    • rapid depolarization
      • caused by the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels and inward Na+ current
        • Na+ current depolarizes cell membrane, which closes inward rectifier K+ channels
  • Phase 1, initial repolarization
    • brief repolarization and net outward current
      • inactivation gates on Na+ channels close
      • Na+ current is decreased
      • outward K+ current down an electrochemical gradient
  • Phase 2, plateau
    • stable, long period of depolarized membrane potential
    • inward and outward current are equal, with no net current flow
      • inward Ca2+ current (slow inward current)
        • opened L-type Ca2+ channels
          • blocked by Ca2+ channel blockers
        • entry of Ca2+ also triggers the release of more Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum in the cell (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release)
      • outward K+ current
        • driven by electrochemical driving force
  • Phase 3, repolarization
    • net outward current
      • L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels close
        • a decrease in inward Ca2+ current
      • delayed rectifier K+ channels open completely and repolarize the membrane
        • increase in outward K+ current
    • inward rectifier K+ channels re-open
  • Phase 4, resting membrane potential
    • inward and outward currents are equal
    • delayed rectifier K+ channels close
    • inward rectifier K+ channels are fully open, resetting resting membrane potential at -85 mV
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8 - 20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: <= 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, toal, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time (template) 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm^3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm^3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c <=6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm^3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm^3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm^3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm^3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m^2
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(M1.CV.119) A 48-year-old female comes into the ER with chest pain. An electrocardiogram (EKG) shows a heart beat of this individual in Image A. The QR segment best correlates with what part of the action potential of the ventricular myocyte shown in Image B? Review Topic

QID: 100635
FIGURES:
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Phase 0, which is primarily characterized by sodium influx

82%

(9/11)

2

Phase 0, which is primarily characterized by potassium efflux

0%

(0/11)

3

Phase 1, which is primarily characterized by potassium and chloride efflux

0%

(0/11)

4

Phase 1, which is primarily characterized by calcium efflux

9%

(1/11)

5

Phase 3, which is primarily characterized by potassium efflux

0%

(0/11)

M1

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