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A 73-year-old man presents to your clinic for a routine checkup. He states that he has not seen a doctor in "many years". He has no complaints. When you auscultate over the cardiac apex with the bell of your stethoscope, you notice an additional sound immediately preceding S1. This extra heart sound is most likely indicative of which of the following processes?
Increased left ventricular compliance
Decreased left ventricular compliance
Increased left ventricular filling volume
Decreased left ventricular filling volume
Increased pulmonary compliance
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A 65-year-old male presents to his cardiologist to discuss increasing episodes of dyspnea after climbing stairs. He also now needs three pillows at night to sleep. Physical examination reveals an early diastolic murmur best appreciated at the left sternal border with bounding peripheral pulses. The cardiologist is very concerned and immediately refers the patient for a surgical workup. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Mitral valve insufficiency
A 33-year-old Honduran woman presents to your clinic with shortness of breath. She reports that her symptoms have progressed over the past several months and are now impacting her quality of life because she cannot complete her usual exercise routine. She recalls "normal" childhood illnesses, including sore throats and fevers, but never required hospitalization. Vital signs are temperature 37 degrees Celsius, blood pressure 110/70 mm Hg, heart rate 109/min, respiratory rate 22/min, and oxygen saturation 98% on room air. Physical exam reveals a holosystolic, high-pitched, blowing murmur at the cardiac apex. One would expect that this murmur would also:
Radiate to the neck
Increase with squatting or handgrip
Increase with inspiration
Also have a mid-systolic click loudest at S2
Have a characteristic machine-like sound
A 65-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction status post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery presents to his cardiologist for a routine appointment. On physical exam, the cardiologist appreciates a holosystolic, high-pitched blowing murmur heard loudest at the apex and radiating towards the axilla. Which of the following is the best predictor of the severity of this patient's murmur?
Enhancement with hand grip maneuver
Enhancement with expiration
Presence of audible S3
Enhancement with inspiration
Presence of audible S4
A 79-year-old man presents to the emergency room after a syncopal event. The patient has a history of hyperlipidemia for which he is taking atorvastatin. On physical examination, his vital signs are stable, but on cardiac auscultation, you detect a crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur loudest on the right upper sternal border radiating to the neck. On physical exam, one would also expect:
That the murmur would best be heard in the lateral left decubitus position
The character of the murmur would be machine-like
The murmur would also have a mid-systolic click loudest at S2
The murmur would also have an opening snap
Palpation of the carotid pulse would be weak and late relative to the patient’s heart sounds
A 37-year-old woman presents to clinic for routine checkup. She has no complaints with the exception of occasional "shortness of breath." Her physical examination is unremarkable with the exception of a "snap"-like sound after S2, followed by a rumbling murmur. You notice that this murmur is heard best at the cardiac apex. A history of which of the following are you most likely to elicit upon further questioning of this patient?
Family history of aortic valve replacement at a young age
Hyperflexibility, vision problems, and pneumothorax
Systolic click auscultated on physical exam 10 years prior
Repeated episodes of streptococcal pharyngitis as a child
Cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, and bronchospasm
A 27-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician complaining that she has recently been experiencing vague chest discomfort. Physical examination reveals a mid-systolic click that is thought to be due to sudden tensing of chorda tendinae. How would this murmur be enhanced while listening on examination and what confirmatory test should be done?
Hand Grip; EKG
A 48-year-old homeless man presents to clinic complaining of fatigue and fevers that "began recently." Cardiac exam reveals a holosystolic murmur, heard best over the left lower sternal border. The murmur increases on inspiration. He also has track marks on his arms bilaterally. This presentation is consistent with which defect?
Ventricular septal defect
A 64-year-old woman with a history of rheumatic fever presents to her primary care clinician complaining of excessive fatigue with walking and difficulty lying flat. She had no prior physical limitations, but recently has been unable to walk more than 3 blocks without needing to stop and rest. Her cardiac exam is notable for a late diastolic murmur heard best at the apex in the left lateral decubitus position with no radiation. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Murmur associated with tricuspid regurgitation