Updated: 3/13/2018

# Resistance, Pressure, and Flow

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 Vessel Pressure Overview    a change in pressure in a vessel is equal to flow times resistance:  ΔP = Q x R this is similar to Ohm's law where a change in voltage is equal to current times resistance:  ΔV = IR a pressure gradient drives flow from high pressure to low Resistance Formula  resistance = (driving pressure ΔP) / (flow Q) = (8η)(viscosity)(length) / (πr4) is directly proportional to viscosity and inversely proportional to the radius of a vessel raised to the 4th power Peripheral resistance arterioles account for most of the total peripheral resistance in the cardiovascular system regulates capillary flow Total resistance the total resistance of vessels in series is determined by summing the resistance of each vessel:  RTOTAL  = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... the total resistance of vessels in parallel is determined by taking the inverse of the sum of the inverses of the resistance of each vessel:  1/RTOTAL= 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ... these calculations are done similarly to adding electrical resistors Viscosity Viscosity depends mostly on hematocrit Viscosity is increased in several disease states: polycythemia conversely, anemia decreases the viscosity hyperproteinemic states (e.g., multiple myeloma) hereditary spherocytosis

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Lab Values
 Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range ALT 8-20 U/L Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L AST 8-20 U/L Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h: 3-15 μg/dL 2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/LFemale: 10-70 U/L Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL Electrolytes, serum Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy) 24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL 28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mLFemale: 12-150 ng/mL Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL postmenopause: 40-250 pH 7.35-7.45 PCO2 33-45 mmHg PO2 75-105 mmHg Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mLProvocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL Immunoglobulins, serum IgA 76-390 mg/dL IgE 0-380 IU/mL IgG 650-1500 mg/dL IgM 40-345 mg/dL Iron 50-170 μg/dL Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL Proteins, serum Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35% Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
 Hematologic Reference Range Bleeding time 2-7 minutes Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/hFemale: 0-20 mm/h Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%Female: 36%-46% Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 % Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dLFemale: 12.0-16.0 g/dL Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL Leukocyte count and differential Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3 Segmented neutrophils 54%-62% Bands 3%-5% Eosinophils 1%-3% Basophils 0%-0.75% Lymphocytes 25%-33% Monocytes 3%-7% Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3 Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3 Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control Volume Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kgFemale: 28-45 mL/kg Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kgFemale: 19-31 mL/kg
 Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range Cell count 0-5/mm3 Chloride 118-132 mEq/L Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins Glucose 40-70 mg/dL Pressure 70-180 mm H2O Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
 Sweat Reference Range Chloride 0-35 mmol/L Urine Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h Chloride Varies with intake Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/minFemale: 88-128 mL/min Estriol, total (in pregnancy) 30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h 35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h 40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 hFemale: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h 17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 hFemale: 6-15 mg/24 h Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL Potassium Varies with diet Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h Sodium Varies with diet Uric acid Varies with diet Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.CV.79) A peripheral artery is found to have 50% stenosis. Therefore, compared to a normal artery with no stenosis, by what factor has the flow of blood been decreased? Review Topic

QID: 100595
1

2

8%

(6/80)

2

4

20%

(16/80)

3

8

18%

(14/80)

4

16

50%

(40/80)

5

32

4%

(3/80)

M1

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