Updated: 11/28/2015

Gene Organization

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Overview
  • Enhancer
    • function
      • allow signal transduced to ↑ transcription
      • act by binding and bending DNA such that they can act on the promoter directly
    • location
      • may be very far from gene locus
      • may be within gene locus
      • orientation does not matter
    • examples
      • glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) bind glucocorticoid
      • estrogen response elements (EREs) bind estrogen
      • cAMP response element (CREs) bind cAMP
  • Silencers
    • act in a mechanism similar to enhancers but ↓ transcription
  • Upstream promoter elements
    • function
      • allow transcription factor induced transcription ↑
    • location
      • close to gene locus
    • examples
      • CCAAT box bind NF-1
      • TATA box
  • 5'-UTR
    • untranslated region upstream of start codon
  • Kozak consensus sequence
    • GCCGCCRCCAUGG, where R is A or G three bases upstream from AUG start codon
    • plays a major role in initiation of translation
    • a mutation in the Kozak consensus sequence may cause β-thalassemia intermedia
  • Start codon 
    • codes for methionine (AUG)
    • beginning of translated (coding) region
  • Coding region
    • between start codon and stop codon
    • following transcription contains introns and exons (eukaryotes)
  • Stop codon
    • UGA, UAG, UAA   
    • terminates translation
  • 3'-UTR
    • untranslated region downstream of stop codon
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

(M1.BC.30) Given the mRNA sequence shown below, if translation were to start at the first base, what would the tRNA anticodon be for the last amino acid translated in the chain?
5'----GCACCGGCCUGACUAUAA---3' Review Topic

QID: 100095
1

3' GCG 5'

2%

(8/328)

2

3' CGC 5'

5%

(17/328)

3

3' GAU 5'

24%

(80/328)

4

5' CGG 3'

20%

(66/328)

5

3' CGG 5'

43%

(140/328)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 5

(M1.BC.14) A 5-year-old boy presents to the pediatrician after his parents noted that he could not sustain physical exertion and would experience muscle cramping. It was noted that after physical exertion the boy experienced severe muscle pain. After a series of biochemical and genetic tests, it was discovered the that the boy had a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Thus he was diagnosed with McArdle's disease. Which of the following mRNA changes would be expected to cause this mutation? Review Topic

QID: 100079
1

UGU -> CGC

2%

(4/181)

2

AUG -> UCA

5%

(9/181)

3

CUG -> AUG

10%

(19/181)

4

UGA -> UAG

15%

(28/181)

5

UAU -> UAA

64%

(115/181)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 5
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(M1.BC.1) Which of the following trinucleotide DNA sequences would initiate protein translation when converted to mRNA?
Note: sequences are written 3'-->5' Review Topic

QID: 106279
1

TAC

50%

(10/20)

2

ACT

10%

(2/20)

3

ATC

10%

(2/20)

4

ATT

15%

(3/20)

5

AAA

5%

(1/20)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 1
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