Updated: 7/29/2018

RNA Processing

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Overview
  • Only in eukaryotes
    • pre-processed transcript = hnRNA
  • Process 
    • capping
      • 5' end
        • 7-methylguanosine cap
        • occurs before transcription has finished
        • functions to help in ribosomal binding
          • also protects against degradation
      • 3' end
        • polyadenylated (poly-A) tail
        • added by poly-A-polymerase
        • functions to protect from degradation
      • some viruses can steal host cell caps so that the viral mRNA gets translated
    • splicing 
      • process of intron removal 
      • mediated by the spliceosome (snRNPs)
        • lariat is formed
        • adjacent exons are attached
    • alternative splicing 
      • one hnRNA can be spliced differently to produce different protein products
  • Location
    • occurs in nucleus after transcription
    • only processed RNA is transported out of the nucleus
 

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Questions (5)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.BC.72) Expression of an mRNA encoding for a soluble form of the Fas protein prevents a cell from undergoing programmed cell death. However, after inclusion of a certain exon, this same Fas pre-mRNA eventually leads to the translation of a protein that is membrane bound, subsequently promoting the cell to undergo apoptosis. Which of the following best explains this finding? Review Topic

QID: 106503
1

Base excision repair

3%

(6/177)

2

Histone deacetylation

4%

(7/177)

3

DNA missense mutation

5%

(8/177)

4

Post-translational modifications

15%

(26/177)

5

Alternative splicing

72%

(128/177)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 5

(M1.BC.1) Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4a) is a transcription factor that is found in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and intestines. The gene is composed of 11 exons and depending on the tissue there are different isoforms of the protein being expressed. Which of the following is responsible for producing the different isoforms of HNF4a? Review Topic

QID: 106969
1

Addition of 7-methylguanosine cap

0%

(0/13)

2

Addition of polyadenylated (poly-A) tail

8%

(1/13)

3

Alternative splicing

77%

(10/13)

4

Histone acetylation

15%

(2/13)

5

DNA methylation

0%

(0/13)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3

(M1.BC.24) A 30-year-old African American woman develops a facial rash in a "butterfly" pattern over her face and complains of feeling tired and achy in her joints. In the course of a full rheumatologic workup you note that she has anti-snRNP antibodies. Which of the following do snRNPs affect? Review Topic

QID: 100089
1

Addition of the 5' 7-methylguanosine cap of mRNA

7%

(1/15)

2

Polyadenylation of the 3' end of mRNA

7%

(1/15)

3

Protection of mRNA from degradation

0%

(0/15)

4

Intron removal from the mRNA

73%

(11/15)

5

Transcription of mRNA

0%

(0/15)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 4
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