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Overview
  • ↑ O2 demand ↑ respiratory rate and ↑ tidal volume ↑ minute ventilation
  • ↑ O2 consumption and ↑ CO2 production
  • Arterial blood
    • no change in PaO2 and PaCO2
      • ↑ minute ventilation and ↑ efficiency of gas exchange ensure that there is neither a decrease in PaO2 nor an increase in PaCO2
    • ↓ pH during strenuous exercise
      • secondary to lactic acidosis
  • Venous blood
    • ↑ PvCO2
      • skeletal muscle adds more CO2 than usual to venous blood
    • no change in PaCO2
      • sufficient ↑ minute ventilation to remove excess CO2
  • Pulmonary blood flow
    • ↑ cardiac output → ↑ pulmonary blood flow ↓ pulmonary resistance
      • pulmonary blood flow becomes more evenly distributed throughout lungs
      • V/Q ratio from lung apex to lung base becomes more uniform
        • ↓ physiologic dead space
  • Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
    • ↑ tissue PCO2, ↓ tissue pH, and ↑ temperature shifts to right
      • ↓ hemoglobin affinity for O2 ↑ O2 unloading in exercising skeletal muscle
 

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