• Anatomy 
    • the kidneys are retroperitoneal structures that filter blood and produce urine
      • excrete excess salts, fluid, and waste products (e.g., uric acid, urea, and creatine) from the body
      • resorb nutrients back into the blood
      • secrete erythropoietin and renin
      • hydroxylate 25-hydroxy-vitamin D into 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D
    • the suprarenal glands (adrenal gland) are above the kidneys
      • a component of the endocrine system
    • blood flow
      • renal artery → segmental artery interlobar artery → afferent arteriole → glomerulus → efferent arteriole → vasa recta → peritubular capillaries → venous outlfow
    • the left kidney is typically used for renal transplantation due to left renal vein's longer length

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