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Microbiology Overview
 
 
Helminths Table
 
Tapeworms (Cestodes) 
  Disease Treatment
Taenia solium (pork)
  • Intestinal tapeworm
  • Cysticercosis (leads to brain cysts and seizures)
  • Praziquantel
Taenia saginata (beef)
  • Intestinal tapeworm
  • Praziquantel
Diphyllobothrium latum (fish)
  • Intestinal tapeworm
  • B12 deficiency
  • Praziquantel
Echinococcus granulosus/multilocularis
  • Hydatid cyst disease (liver cysts)
  • -bendazoles
Flukes (Trematodes) 
Schistosoma (snails)
  • Schistosomiasis (eggs deposit throughout body forming granulomas) → portal HTN, hematuria, and bladder cancer
  • Praziquantel
Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke)
  • Clonorchiasis (biliary tract inflammation)
  • Cholangiosarcoma
  • Praziquantel
Paragoniums westermani (lung fluke)
  • Mimics pulmonary TB (hemoptysis)
  • Praziquantel
Roundworms (Nematodes) 
Transmitted by the Ingestion of Eggs ("EATT")
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
  • Perianal pruritis
  • -bendazoles
  • Pyrantel pamoate
Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
  • GI and pulmonary symptoms
  • -bendazoles
  • Pyrantel pamoate
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
  • Diarrhea
  • Intestinal prolapse
  • -bendazoles
Toxocara canis
  • Visceral larva migrans
  • Blindness
  • Albendazole +/- corticosteroids 
Transmitted by the Invasion of Larvae through Skin ("SANd")
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)
  • Diarrhea/vomiting
  • Anemia
  • Pneumonitis
  • -bendazoles
Ancylostoma braziliense/caninum
  • Cutaneous larva migrans
  • Microcytic anemia
  • -bendazoles
Necator americanus (hookworm)
  • Microcytic anemia
  • Pneumonitis
  • -bendazoles
  • Pyrantel pamoate
Transmitted by the Ingestion of Larvae
Trichinella spiralis
  • Muscle inflammation
  • Periorbital edema
  • -bendazoles
Transmitted by Arthropods
Wucheria bancrofti
  • Elephantiasis
  • Diethylcarbamazine 
Loa loa (African eye worm)
  • Eye pain and swelling
  • Diethylcarbamazine 
Onchocerca volvulus
  • River blindness (blindness and lizard skin)
  • Ivermectin
Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm)
  • Skin inflammation and ulceration
  • Worm eruption from skin
  • Niridazole
 
Helminths Introduction
  • Helminths (Greek: "worms")
    • are usually macroscopic
    • have microscopic eggs
    • are multicellular
    • have a life cycle that involves stages in other organisms
 

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