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 Bugs causing UTIs
Bug (Bacteria only)
Comments
E. coli #1 leading cause of UTI 
S. saprophyticus #2 leading cause of UTI, common in young, sexually active women
K. pneumoniae  
Proteus  
P. aeruginosa  Common cause in patients with indwelling catheters
Serratia  
Enterobacter cloacae  
E. faecalis  
  • Urinary tract infections
    • cystitis ("bladder infection")
      • dysuria
      • polyuria
      • suprapubic pain
      • WBCs in urine
        • no casts
      • systemic symptoms (e.g. fever) uncommon
    • pyelonephritis (infection reaches upper urinary tract or kidney)
      • fever
      • chills
      • flank pain / costovertebral angle (CVA) tenderness
      • WBC casts in urine
      • hematuria
  • Diagnosis
    • positive leukocyte esterase test = bacterial UTI
    • positive Nitrite test = Gram-Negative bacterial UTI
  • Predisposing factors
    • urinary catheterization
    • diabetes
    • pregnancy
    • kidney surgery
    • congenital defects
    • vesicoureteral reflux (urine flows from bladder back to ureters)
    • BPH
  • Epidemiology
    • women affected 10x more frequently than men
      • shorter urethra
      • proximity of urethra to anus
      • colonization of vagina by fecal flora
    • leading cause of UTIs is urinary catheters
 

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