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Obligate intracellular parasites
  • Intracellular existence protects bug from B-cell defenses
  • Cannot be cultured on inert media
  • Bacteria
    • Chlamydia spp.
      • cannot make any ATP
    • Rickettsia spp.
      • cannot make enough ATP
    • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Viruses
    • all viruses are obligate intracellular parasites
  • Protozoa
    • Plasmodium spp.
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • Babesia spp.
    • Leishmania donovani
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Fungi
    • none
Facultative intracellular parasites
  • Able to live and reproduce either inside or outside of cells
  • Bacteria
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Salmonella typhi
    • Francisella tularensis
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • MOTTS
    • Brucella spp.
    • Neisseria spp.
    • Yersinia pestis
    • Nocardia spp.
  • Fungi
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
  • Helminths
    • Enterobius vermicularis  
Other obligate parasites
  • Cannot be cultured on inert media
  • Found outside cells
  • Bacteria
    • Treponema pallidum
  • Fungus (yeast-like)
    • Pneumocystis jiroveci
 

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